1921
Volume 69, Issue 1
  • ISSN: 0002-9637
  • E-ISSN: 1476-1645

Abstract

Immigrants from less developed countries to Europe are growing in number and could contribute to the emergence of some infectious diseases. To address this issue, we conducted a descriptive study of 988 immigrants, of whom 79.9% were sub-Saharan Africans and 72% were of undocumented origin. Fever, pruritus, eosinophilia, visceromegaly, and anemia were more frequent in Africans, while a cough was more common Latin Americans ( < 0.005). The most frequent diagnoses were previous hepatitis B (46.5%), latent tuberculosis (44.2%), filariasis (24.8%), infection with intestinal helminths (15.4%), malaria (15.1%), infection with intestinal protozoa (10%), hepatitis C (8.8%), other non-parasitic infections (7.8%), active hepatitis B (7.6%), sexually transmitted diseases (7.5%), active tuberculosis (5.8%), and infection with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) (5.2%). Past and active hepatitis B and C, active tuberculosis, infection with HIV, malaria, and filariasis were more frequent in Africans ( < 0.005). Thirty-two other tropical diseases were also diagnosed.

Loading

Article metrics loading...

/content/journals/10.4269/ajtmh.2003.69.115
2003-07-01
2017-09-21
Loading full text...

Full text loading...

/deliver/fulltext/14761645/69/1/0690115.html?itemId=/content/journals/10.4269/ajtmh.2003.69.115&mimeType=html&fmt=ahah

References

  1. World Health Organization, 1999. Removing Obstacles to Healthy Development. Geneva: World Health Organization.
  2. Wilson ME, 1998. Infectious diseases: an ecological perspective. BMJ 311 : 1681–1684.
  3. CDC, 1998. Preventing emerging infectious diseases: A strategy for the 21st century. MMWR Morb Mortal Wkly Rep 47 : 1–14.
  4. Global Population, Migration News. (online) 2001. Available from: URL: http://www.ucdavis.edu/.
  5. Ministerio del Interior, 1999. Anuario Estadístico del Ministerio del Interior 1998. Madrid: Secretaría Técnica del Ministerio del Interior, eds.
  6. Recommendations for prevention and control of tuberculosis among foreign-born persons. Report of the Working Group on Tuberculosis among Foreign-Born Persons, 1998. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. MMWR Morb Mortal Wkly Rep 47 : 1–29.
  7. World Health Organization, 1992. Basic Laboratory Methods in Medical Parasitology. Geneva: World Health Organization.
  8. Roca C, Balanzó X, Fernández JL, Pujol E, Corachán M, 1999. Caracterización demográfica, motivos de consulta y morbilidad prevalente en la comunidad de inmigrantes africanos de la comarca de Maresme. Med Clin (Barc) 112 : 215–217.
  9. Esteban MM, 2001. Motivos de consulta y características demográficas de una comunidad de inmigrantes “sin papeles” en el distrito de Usera-Villaverde (Madrid). Aten Primaria 27 : 25–28.
  10. Sanz B, Torres AM, Schumacher R, 2000. Características sociodemográficas y utilización de servicios sanitarios por la población inmigrante residente en un área de la Comunidad de Madrid. Aten Primaria 26 : 314–318.
  11. Carballo M, Divino JJ, Zeric D, 1998. Migration and health in the European Union. Trop Med Int Health 3 : 936–944.
  12. Gellert GA, 1993. International migration and control of communicable diseases. Soc Sci Med 37 : 1489–1499.
  13. Zubero Z, Santamaria JM, Muñoz J, Teira R, Baraia-Etxaburu J, Cisterna R, 2000. Enfermedades importadas “tropicales”: experiencia de una consulta especializada en un hospital general. Rev Clin Esp 200 : 533–537.
  14. Nahmias J, Greenberg Z, Berger SA, Hornstein L, Bilgury B, Abel B, Kutner S, 1993. Health profile of Ethiopian immigrants in Israel: an overview. Isr J Med Sci 29 : 338–343.
  15. Adair R, Nwaneri O, 1999. Communicable disease in African immigrants in Minneapolis. Arch Intern Med 159 : 83–85.
  16. Salas SD, Heifetz R, Barrett-Connor E, 1990. Intestinal parasites in Central American immigrants in the United States. Arch Intern Med 150 : 1514–1516.
  17. Godue CB, Gyorkos TW, 1990. Intestinal parasites in refugee claimants: a case study for selective screening? Can J Public Health 81 : 191–195.
  18. Buchwald D, Lam M, Hooton TM, 1995. Prevalence of intestinal parasites and association with symptoms in Southeast Asian refugees. J Clin Pharm Ther 20 : 271–275.
  19. López-Vélez R, Turrientes C, Gutierrez C, Mateos M, 1997. Prevalence of hepatitis B, C, and D markers in sub-Saharan African immigrants. J Clin Gastroenterol 25 : 650–652.
  20. Flatau E, Segol O, Shneour A, Tabenkin H, Raz R, 1993. Prevalence of markers of infection with hepatitis B and C viruses in immigrants of operation Solomon, 1991. Isr J Med Sci 29 : 387–389.
  21. Garcia-Samaniego J, Soriano V, Enriquez A, Lago M, Martinez ML, Muno F, 1994. Hepatitis B and C virus infections among African immigrants in Spain. Am J Gastroenterol 89 : 1918–1919.
  22. Romea S, Duran E, Cabezos J, Bada JL, 1997. Situación inmunológica de la hepatitis B en inmigrantes. Estrategias de vacunación. Med Clin (Barc) 109 : 656–660.
  23. Whittle HC, Bradley AK, McLauchlan K, Ajdukiewicz AB, Howard CR, Zuckerman AJ, McGregor IA, 1983. Hepatitis B virus infection in two Gambian villages. Lancet 1 : 1203–1206.
  24. Hurie MB, Mast EE, Davis JP, 1992. Horizontal transmission of hepatitis B virus infection to United States-born children of Hmong refugees. Pediatrics 89 : 269–273.
  25. Parenti DM, Lucas D, Lee A, Hollenkamp RH, 1987. Health status of Ethiopian refugees in the United States. Am J Public Health 77 : 1542–1543.
  26. Bouree P, Lamour P, Bisaro F, Didier E, 1995. Étude d’une population d’origine tropicale, HIV positive, dans un centre de réfugiés en France. Bull Soc Pathol Exot 88 : 24–28.
  27. Christenson B, Stillstrom J, 1995. The epidemiology of human immunodeficiency virus and other sexually transmitted diseases in the Stockholm area. Sex Transm Dis 22 : 281–288.
  28. Zuber PL, McKenna MT, Binkin NJ, Onorato IM, Castro KG, 1997. Long-term risk of tuberculosis among foreign-born persons in the United States. JAMA 278 : 304–307.
  29. McKenna MT, McCray E, Onorato I, 1995. The epidemiology of tuberculosis among foreign-born persons in the United States, 1986 to 1993. N Engl J Med 332 : 1071–1076.
  30. Mas J, Sima A, Untoria D, Post R, Limiñana C, Ncogo PR, Nguema R, Mba E, Beningo JC, Capote T, Mejias E, Cantillo O, Pou R, Chicampo E, 1996. Onchocerciasis and its control in Equatorial Guinea: 1909–1996. Res Rev Parasitol 56 : 147–155.
  31. Cabezos J, Duran E, Trevino B, Bada JL, 1995. Paludismo importado por inmigrantes en Cataluña. Med Clin (Barc) 104 : 45–48.
  32. Paxton LA, Slutsker L, Schultz LJ, Luby SP, Meriwether R, Matson P, Sulzer AJ, 1996. Imported malaria in Montagnard refugees settling in North Carolina: implications for prevention and control. Am J Trop Med Hyg 54 : 54–57.
  33. López-Vélez R, Viana A, Perez-Casas C, Martin-Aresti J, Turrientes MC, Garcia-Camacho A, 1999. Clinicoepidemiological study of imported malaria in travelers and immigrants to Madrid. J Travel Med 6 : 81–86.
  34. Minodier P, Lanza-Silhol F, Piarroux R, Garnier JM, Dumon H, Unal D, 1999. Le paludisme pédiatrique d’importation à Marseille. Arch Pediatr 6 : 935–943.
  35. Marsh K, Forster D, Waruiru C, Mwangi I, Winstanley M, Marsh V, Newton C, Winstanley P, Warn P, Peshu N, Pasvol G, Snow R, 1995. Indicators of life-threatening malaria in African children. N Engl J Med 332 : 1399–1404.
  36. Svenson JE, MacLean JD, Gyorkos TW, Keystone J, 1995. Imported malaria. Clinical presentation and examination of symptomatic travelers. Arch Intern Med 155 : 861–868.
  37. Dorsey G, Gandhi M, Oyugi JH, Rosenthal PJ, 2000. Difficulties in the prevention, diagnosis, and treatment of imported malaria. Arch Intern Med 160 : 2505–2510.
  38. Kain KC, Harrington MA, Tennyson S, Keystone JS, 1998. Imported malaria: prospective analysis of problems in diagnosis and management. Clin Infect Dis 27 : 142–149.
  39. Kyriacou DN, Spira AM, Talan DA, Mabey DC, 1996. Emergency department presentation and misdiagnosis of imported falciparum malaria. Ann Emerg Med 27 : 696–699.
  40. Nahmias J, Greenberg Z, Djerrasi L, Giladi L, 1991. Mass treatment of intestinal parasites among Ethiopian immigrants. Isr J Med Sci 27 : 278–283.
  41. Francy DB, Karabatsos N, Wesson DM, Moore CG Jr, Lazuick JS, Niebylski ML, Tsai TF, Craig GB Jr, 1990. A new arbovirus from Aedes albopictus, an Asian mosquito established in the United States. Science 250 : 1738–1740.
  42. Rodhain F, 1985. Aedes albopictus: a potential problem in France. Parassitologia 37 : 115–119.
  43. Shantz PM, Moore AC, Munoz J, Hartman BJ, Schaefer JA, Aron AM, Persaud D, Sarti E, Wilson M, Flisser A, 1992. Neurocysticercosis in an Orthodox Jewish Community in New York City. N Engl J Med 327 : 692–695.
  44. Geng E, Kreiswirth B, Driver C, Li J, Burzynski J, DellaLatta P, LaPaz A, Schluger N, 2002. Changes in the transmission of tuberculosis in New York city from 1990 to 1999. N Engl J Med 346 : 1453–1458.
  45. Issack MI, Ragavoodoo C, 2002. Hajj-related Neisseria meningitidis serogroup w135 in Mauritius. Emerg Infect Dis 8 : 332–334.
  46. Gurtler RE, Segura EL, Cohen JE, 2003. Congenital transmission of Trypanosoma cruzi infection in Argentina. Emerg Infect Dis 9 : 29–32.
  47. Martin S, 2001. Congenital toxoplasmosis. Neonatal Netw 20 : 23–30.
  48. Congenital malaria as a result of Plasmodium malariae - North Carolina, 2000. MMWR Morb Mortal Wkly Rep 51 : 164–165.
  49. Reinhardt MC, 1979. Effects of parasitic infections in pregnant women. Ciba Found Symp 77 : 149–170.
http://instance.metastore.ingenta.com/content/journals/10.4269/ajtmh.2003.69.115
Loading
/content/journals/10.4269/ajtmh.2003.69.115
Loading

Data & Media loading...

  • Received : 04 Nov 2002
  • Accepted : 26 Mar 2003

Most Cited This Month

This is a required field
Please enter a valid email address
Approval was a Success
Invalid data
An Error Occurred
Approval was partially successful, following selected items could not be processed due to error