1921
Volume 68, Issue 6
  • ISSN: 0002-9637
  • E-ISSN: 1476-1645

Abstract

The antimicrobial susceptibility patterns for 2,812 bacterial pathogens isolated from diarrheal patients admitted to hospitals in several provinces in the cities of Jakarta, Padang, Medan, Denpasar, Pontianak, Makassar, and Batam, Indonesia were analyzed from 1995 to 2001 to determine their changing trends in response to eight antibiotics: ampicillin, trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole, chloramphenicol, tetracycline, cephalothin, ceftriaxone, norfloxacin, and ciprofloxacin. O1 (37.1%) was the pathogen most frequently detected, followed by spp. (27.3%), spp. (17.7%), (7.3%), (3.9%), (3.6%), non-O1 (2.4%), and A (0.7%). Of the 767 spp. isolated, 82.8% were , 15.0% were , and 2.2% were (2.2%). The re-emergence of was noted in 1998, after an absence of 15 years. spp. were resistant to ampicillin, trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole, chloramphenicol, and tetracycline. and A were susceptible to all antibiotics tested, while spp. showed various resistance patterns according to species grouping. A small number of O1 were resistant to ampicillin, trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole, chloramphenicol, and tetracycline; however, they were still sensitive to ceftriaxon, norfloxacin, and ciprofloxacin. Similar results were shown for non-O1. showed an increased frequency of resistance to ceftriaxone, norfloxacin, and ciprofloxacin, but was susceptible to erythromycin. This study shows that except for and , which appeared to be resistant to ciprofloxacin, the majority of the enteric pathogens tested were still susceptible to fluoroquinolones.

Loading

Article metrics loading...

/content/journals/10.4269/ajtmh.2003.68.666
2003-06-01
2017-09-21
Loading full text...

Full text loading...

/deliver/fulltext/14761645/68/6/0680666.html?itemId=/content/journals/10.4269/ajtmh.2003.68.666&mimeType=html&fmt=ahah

References

  1. Sack RB, Rahman M, Yunus M, Khan EH, 1997. Antimicrobial resistance in organisms causing diarrheal disease. Clin Infect Dis 24 : S102–S105.
  2. Du Pont HL, 1993. Diarrheal disease: current concepts and future challenges antimicrobials therapy and prophylaxis. Trans R Soc Trop Med Hyg 87 (Suppl 3): 31–34.
  3. Tauxe RV, 1997. Emerging foodborne disease: an evolving public health challenge. Emerg Infect Dis 3 : 425–434.
  4. Mead PS, Slutsker L, Dietz V, McCaig LF, Bresee JS, Shapiro C, Griffin PM, Tauxe RV, 1999. Food-related illness and death in the United States. Emerg Infect Dis 5 : 607–625.
  5. Smith SM, Palumbo PE, Edelson PD, 1984. Salmonella strain resistant to multiple antibiotics: Therapeutic implications. Pediatr Infect Dis 3 : 455–460.
  6. Bopp CA, Birkness KA, Wachsmuth IK, Barrett T J, 1985. In vitro antimicrobial susceptibility, plasmid analysis, and sero-typing of epidemic-associated Campylobacter jejuni. J Clin Microbiol 21 : 4–7.
  7. Hoge CW, Gambel JM, Srijan A, Pitarangsi C, Echeverria P, 1998. Trends in antibiotic resistance among diarrheal pathogens isolated in Thailand over 15 Years. Clin Infect Dis 26 : 341–345.
  8. Murphy GS Jr, Echeverria P, Jackson LR, Arness MK, Lebron C, Pitarangsi C, 1995. Ciprofloxacin- and azithromycin-resistant causing Traveler’s diarrhea in U. S. troops deployed to Thailand in 1994. Clin Infect Dis 22 : 868–869.
  9. Endtz HP, Ruijs GJ, van Klingeren B, Jansen WH, van der Reyden T, Mouton RP, 1991. Quinolone resistance in Campylobacter isolated from man and poultry following the introduction of fluoroquinolones in veterinary medicine. J Antmicrobiol Chemother 27 : 199–208.
  10. Bennish ML, Salam MA, Hossain MA, Myaux J, Khan EH, Chakraborty J, Henry F, Ronsmans C, 1992. Antimicrobial resistance of Shigella isolates in Bangladesh, 1983–1990: increasing frequency of strains multiply resistant to ampicillin, trimethoprim-sulfamethoxasole and nalidixic acid. J Infect Dis 14 : 1055–1060.
  11. Subekti D, Oyofo BA, Tjaniadi P, Corwin A L, Larasati W, Putri M, Simanjuntak CH, Punjabi NH, Taslim J, Setiawan B, Djelantik AAG, Sriwati L, Sumardiati A, Putra E, Campbell J R, Lesmana M, 2001. Surveillance of Shigella spp. in Indonesia: the emergence or re-emergence of S. dysenteriae. Emerg Infect Dis 7 : 137–140.
  12. Watanabe T, 1972. Further outlooks of antibiotics in the shadow of resistance factors. Kremery V, Rosival L, Watanabe T, eds. Bacterial Plasmids and Antibiotic Resistance. Prague: Avicenum, Czechoslovak Medical Press, 9–10.
  13. Farmer JJ III, Kelly MT, 1991. Enterobacteriaceae. Balows A, Hausler WJ Jr, Herman KL, Isenberg HD, Shadomy HJ, eds. Manual of Clinical Microbiology. Fifth edition. Washington, DC: American Society for Microbiology, 370–373.
  14. Lesmana M, Albert MJ, Subekti D, Richie E, Tjaniadi P, Walz SE, Lebron CI, 1996. Simple differentiation of Vibrio cholerae O 139 from V. cholerae O1 and non-O1, non O139 by modified CAMP test. J Clin Microbiol 34 : 1038–1040.
  15. National Committee for Clinical Laboratory Standards, 1997. Performance Standards for Antimicrobial Disk Susceptibility Tests. Sixth edition. Wayne, PA: National Committee for Clinical Laboratory Standards. Approved Standard M2-A6.17: 1.
  16. Woods GL, Washington JA, 1995. Antimicrobial susceptibility tests: dilution and disk diffusion methods. Murray PR, Baron EJ, Pfaller MA, Tenover FC, Yolken RH, eds. Manual of Clinical Microbiology. Sixth edition. Washington, DC: American Society for Microbiology, 1327–1355.
  17. Lesmana M, Subekti D, Simanjuntak CH, Tjaniadi P, Campbell JR, Oyofo BA, 2001. Vibrio parahaemolyticus associated with cholera-like diarrhea among patients in north Jakarta, Indonesia. Diagn Microbiol Infect Dis 39 : 71–75.
  18. Vanhoof R, Vanderlinden MP, Dierickx R, Lauwers S, Yourassowsky E, Butzler JP, 1978. Susceptibility of Campylobacter fetus subsp. jejuni to twenty-nine antimicrobial agents. Antimicrob Agents Chemother 14 : 553–556.
  19. Bhattacharya MK, Bhattacharya SK, Paul M, Dutta D, Dutta P, Kole H, De D, Ghosh AR, Das P, Nair GB, 1994. Shigellosis in Calcutta during 1990–1992: antibiotic susceptibility pattern and clinical features. J Diarrhoeal Dis Res 12 : 121–124.
  20. Lima AAM, Lima NL, Pinho MCN, Barros EA Jr, Teixeira M.J, Martins MCV, Guerrant RL, 1995. High frequency of strains multiply resistant to ampicillin, trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole, streptomycin, chloramphenicol, and tetracycline isolated from patients with shigellosis in northeastern Brazil during the period 1988 to 1993. Antimicrob Agents Chemother 39 : 256–259.
  21. Navia MM, Capitano L, Ruiz J, Vargas M, Urassa H, Schellemberg D, Gascon J, Vila J, 1999. Typing and characterization of mechanisms of resistance of Shigella spp. from feces of children under 5 years of age from Ifakara, Tanzania. J Clin Microbiol 37 : 3113–3117.
  22. Wasfy MO, Oyofo BA, David JC, Ismail TF, El-Gendy AM, Mohran ZS, Sultan Y, Peruski LF Jr, 2000. Isolation and antibiotic susceptibility of Salmonella, Shigella, and Campylobacter from acute enteric infections in Egypt. J Health Popul Nutr 18 : 33–38.
  23. Gaudreau C, Gilbert H, 1998. Antimicrobial resistance of clinical strains of Campylobacter jejuni subsp. jejuni isolated from 1985 to 1997 in Quebec, Canada. Antimicrob Agents Chemother 42 : 2106–2108.
  24. Taylor DN, Blaser MJ, Echeverria P, Pitarangsi C, Bodhidatta L, Wang W L, 1997. Erythromycin-resistant Campylobacter infections in Thailand. Antimicrob Agents Chemother 31 : 438–442.
  25. Sanborn WR, Lesmana M, Dennis DT, Trenggonowati R, Kairman Lita I, Suryani, 1975. Antibiotic-resistant typhoid in Indonesia (letter). Lancet ii : 408–409.
  26. Rowe B, Ward LR, Threlfall EJ, 1997. Multidrug-resistant Salmonella typhi: a worldwide epidemic. Clin Infect Dis 24 (Suppl 1): S106–S109.
http://instance.metastore.ingenta.com/content/journals/10.4269/ajtmh.2003.68.666
Loading
/content/journals/10.4269/ajtmh.2003.68.666
Loading

Data & Media loading...

  • Received : 23 Jul 2002
  • Accepted : 13 Feb 2003

Most Cited This Month

This is a required field
Please enter a valid email address
Approval was a Success
Invalid data
An Error Occurred
Approval was partially successful, following selected items could not be processed due to error