1921
Volume 68, Issue 6
  • ISSN: 0002-9637
  • E-ISSN: 1476-1645

Abstract

We describe the pathologic alterations of the central nervous system (CNS) observed in experimental tegumentary leishmaniasis in BALB/c and Swiss mice. The mice were subcutaneously infected with 10 amastigotes of . Animals were killed and brains were removed for histologic and immunocytochemical studies. Histologic examination showed that 66.6% of infected mice had a discrete hyperemia and inflammatory infiltrate in the meninges, composed of mononuclear cells and neutrophils with no detectable parasites. However, parasitized macrophages were detected in the cerebral parenchyma, as well as mast cells, lymphocytes, and polymorphonuclear cells. Necrosis in the cerebral parenchyma was also observed. Confocal fluorescence microscopy showed that CD8 T lymphocytes are the major component of the inflammatory infiltrate in the CNS. In addition to these cells, CD4, CD11b, and dendritic cells are present, in small numbers, in the inflammatory processes of the CNS. Thus, is able to cross the blood-brain barrier and cause significant pathologic changes in the CNS.

Loading

Article metrics loading...

/content/journals/10.4269/ajtmh.2003.68.661
2003-06-01
2017-09-20
Loading full text...

Full text loading...

/deliver/fulltext/14761645/68/6/0680661.html?itemId=/content/journals/10.4269/ajtmh.2003.68.661&mimeType=html&fmt=ahah

References

  1. Rodrigues HJ, Mozos E, Mendez A, Perez J, Gómez-Villamandos JC, 1996. Leishmania infection of canine skin fibroblasts in vivo. Vet Pathol 33 : 469–473.
  2. Schotelius J, Gonçalves da Costa SC, 1982. Studies on the relationship between lectin binding carbohydrates and different strains of Leishmania from the New World. Mem Inst Oswaldo Cruz 77 : 19–21.
  3. Barral A, Pedral Sampaio D, Grimaldi G Jr, Momen H, 1991. Leishmaniasis in Bahia, Brazil: evidence that Leishmania amazonensis produces a wide spectrum of clinical disease. Am J Trop Med Hyg 44 : 536–546.
  4. Barral A, Badaró R, Barral-Neto M, Grimaldi G, Momem H, Carvalho EM, 1986. Isolation of Leishmania mexicana amazonensis from the bone marrow in a case of American visceral leishmaniasis. Am J Trop Med Hyg 35 : 732–734.
  5. Sampaio RN, Marsden PD, Llanaos-Cuentas EA, Cuba CC, Griamaldi G Jr, 1985. Leishmania amazonensis isolated from a patient with fatal mucosal leishmaniasis. Rev Soc Bras Med Trop 18 : 273–274.
  6. Ramos-Santos C, Hernandez-Montes O, Sanchez-Tejeda G, Monroy-Ostria A, 2000. Visceral leishmaniosis caused by Leishmania (L.) mexicana in a Mexican patient with human immunodeficiency virus infection. Mem Inst Oswaldo Cruz 95 : 733–737.
  7. Ramos CC, Duarte MI, Ramos AM, 1994. Fatal visceral leishmaniasis associated with acquired immunodeficiency syndrome: report of a case with necropsy findings and immunohistochemical study. Rev Soc Bras Med Trop 27 : 245–250.
  8. Yu JX, Bradt BM, Cooper NR, 2002. Constitutive expression of proinflammatory complement components by subsets of neurons in the central nervous systems. J Neuroimmunol 123 : 91–101.
  9. Nassif X, Bourdoulous S, Eugéne E, Courad PO, 2002. How do extracellular pathogens cross the blood-brain barrier? Trends Microbiol 10 : 227–232.
  10. Vries HE, Kuiper J, Boer AG, Van Berkel TJC, Breimer DD, 1997. The blood-brain barrier in neuroinflammatory diseases. Pharmacol Rev 49 : 143–155.
  11. Bouza E, Garcia de la Torre M, Parras F, Guerrero A, Rodrigues-Creixems M, Gobernado J, 1987. Brucellar meningitis. Rev Infect Dis 9 : 810–822.
  12. Drevets DA, 1999. Dissemination of Listeria monocytogenes by infected phagocytes. Infect Immun 67 : 3512–3517.
  13. Garcia-Monco JC, 1999. Central nervous system tuberculosis. Neurol Clin 17 : 737–759.
  14. Toumanen E, 1996. Entry of pathogens into the central nervous system. FEMS Microbiol Rev 18 : 289–299.
  15. Drevets DA, Leenen PJM, 2000. Leukocyte-facilitated entry of intracellular pathogens into the central nervous systems. Microbes Infect 2 : 1609–1618.
  16. Vinuelas J, Garcia-Alonso M, Ferrando L, Navarrete I, Molano I, Miron C, Carcelen J, Alonso C, Nieto CG, 2001. Meningeal leishmaniosis induced by Leishmania infantum in naturally infected dogs. Vet Parasitol 101 : 23–27.
  17. Nieto CG, Vinuelas J, Blanco A, Garcia-Alonso M, Verdugo SG, Navarrete I, 1996. Detection of Leishmania infantum amastigotes in canine choroid plexus. Vet Rec 139 : 346–347.
  18. Prasad LS, Sen S, 1996. Migration of Leishmania donovani amastigotes in the cerebrospinal fluid. Am J Trop Med Hyg 55 : 652–654.
  19. William AW, Blakemore WF, 1990. Pathogenesis of meningitis caused by Streptococcus suis type 2. J Infect Dis 162 : 474–481.
  20. Soong L, Chang CH, Sun J, Longley BJ Jr, Ruddle NH, Flavell RA, McMahon-Pratt D, 1997. Role of CD4+ T cells in pathogenesis associated with Leishmania amazonensis infection. J Immunol 158 : 5374–5383.
  21. Terabe M, Kuramochi T, Ito M, Hatabu T, Sanjoba C, Chang KP, Onodera T, Matsumoto Y, 2000. CD4+cells are indispensable for ulcer development in murine cutaneous leishmaniasis. Infect Immun 68 : 4574–4577.
  22. Locksley RM, Scott P, 1991. Helper T cells subsets in mouse leishmaniasis induction, expansion and effector function. Immunol Today 12 : A58–A61.
  23. Suzuki Y, Remington JS, 1988. Dual regulation of resistance against Toxoplasma gondii infection by Lyt-2+ Lyt-1+, and L3T4+ T cells in mice. J Immunol 140 : 3943–3946.
  24. Araújo FG, 1991. Depletion of L3T4+ (CD4+) T lymphocytes prevents development of resistance to Toxoplasma gondii in mice. Infect Immun 59 : 1614–1619.
  25. Suzuki Y, Conley FK, Remington JS, 1989. Importance of endogenous IFN-gamma for prevention of toxoplasmic encephalitis in mice. J Immunol 143 : 2045–2050.
  26. Kima PE, Ruddle NH, McMahon-Pratt D, 1997. Presentation via the class I pathway by Leishmania amazonensis-infected macrophages of an endogenous leishmanial antigen to CD8+ T cells. J Immunol 159 : 1828–1834.
  27. Oca RM, Buendía AJ, Del Río L, Sánchez J, Salinas J, Navarro JA, 2000. Polymorphonuclear neutrophils are necessary for the recruitment of CD8+ T cells in the liver in a pregnant mouse model of Chlamydophila abortus (Chlamydia psittaci serotype 1) infection. Infect Immun 68 : 1746–1751.
  28. Serafini B, Columba-Cabezas S, Di Rosa F, Aloisi F, 2000. Intracerebral recruitment and maturation of dendritic cells in the onset and progression of experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis. Am J Pathol 157 : 1991–2002.
  29. Kostulas N, Li HL, Xiao BG, Huang YM, Kostulas V, Link H, 2002. Dendritic cells are present in ischemic brain after permanent middle cerebral artery occlusion in the rat. Stroke 33 : 1129–1134.
  30. Lambracht-Hall M, Dimitriadou V, Theoharides TC, 1990. Migration of mast cells in the developing rat brain. Brain Res 56 : 151–159.
  31. Abraham SN, Malaviya R, 2000. Mast cell modulation of the innate immune response to enterobacterial infection. Adv Exp Med Biol 479 : 91–105.
  32. Bridi M, Vouldoukis I, Mossalayi MD, Debré P, Guillosson JJ, Mazier D, Arock M, 1997. Evidence for direct interaction between mast cells and Leishmania parasites. Parasite Immunol 19 : 475–483.
  33. Wershil, BK., Theodos, CM, Galli, SJ, Titus, RG. 1994. Mast cells augment lesion size and persistence during experimental Leishmania major in the mouse. J Immunol 152: 4563–4571.
http://instance.metastore.ingenta.com/content/journals/10.4269/ajtmh.2003.68.661
Loading
/content/journals/10.4269/ajtmh.2003.68.661
Loading

Data & Media loading...

Most Cited This Month

This is a required field
Please enter a valid email address
Approval was a Success
Invalid data
An Error Occurred
Approval was partially successful, following selected items could not be processed due to error