Volume 68, Issue 6
  • ISSN: 0002-9637
  • E-ISSN: 1476-1645


The rapid immunochromatographic card test (ICT) for circulating filarial antigen is being used to map areas endemic for lymphatic filariasis. However, the ICT is expensive; thus, surveys based on this test must be relatively limited. Our study was conducted to determine if village-based hydrocele surveys could be used to supplement the ICT surveys in the mapping activities. We compared in 144 Nigerian villages the two assessment methods, ICT and examination for clinical hydrocele, in random samples of 30 adults selected using a procedure that obtained 15 younger males (reported age = 16–39 years old) and 15 older males (≥ 40 years), based on the assumption that hydrocele rates may be more prevalent in older age groups. The men were asked if they had scrotal swelling, then examined and tested by the ICT. We found a weakly positive correlation between village prevalence determined by the ICT and hydrocele (r = 0.041, < 0.001). Only villages with hydrocele rates of 20% or greater were also consistently classified as having endemic filariasis by the ICT. There was no correlation between an individual’s ICT positivity and clinical presence of hydrocele, and questioning about scrotal swelling was not predictive for presence of hydrocele. More research is needed to determine if community level hydrocele prevalence surveys can offer an economical and broadly applicable supplement to the ICT for determining the endemicity of filariasis.


Article metrics loading...

The graphs shown below represent data from March 2017
Loading full text...

Full text loading...



  1. Michael E, Bundy DAP, 1997. Global mapping of lymphatic filariasis. Parasitol Today 13 : 471–476. [Google Scholar]
  2. Michael E, Bundy DAP, Grenfell BT, 1996. Re-assessing the global prevalence and distribution of lymphatic filariasis. Parasitology 112 : 409–428. [Google Scholar]
  3. Ottesen EA, Duke BO, Karam M, Behbehani K, 1997. Strategies and tools for the control/elimination of lymphatic filariasis. Bull World Health Organ 75 : 491–503. [Google Scholar]
  4. Molyneux DH, Neira M, Liese B, Heyman D, 2000. Elimination of lymphatic filariasis as public health problem: setting the scene for elimination. Trans R Soc Trop Med Hyg 94 : 589–591. [Google Scholar]
  5. Weil GJ, Lammie PJ, Weiss N, 1997. The ICT filariasis test: a rapid-format antigen test for diagnosis of Bancroftian filariasis. Parasitol Today 13 : 401–404. [Google Scholar]
  6. WHO, 2000. Operational Guidelines for Rapid Mapping of Bancroftian Filariasis in Africa. Geneva: World Health Organization. WHO/CDS/CPE/CEE/2000. 9 : 5.
  7. Gyapong JO, Webber RH, Morris J, Bennett S, 1998. Prevalence of hydrocele as a rapid diagnostic index for lymphatic filariasis. Trans R Soc Trop Med Hyg 98 : 40–43. [Google Scholar]
  8. Haddix A, Kestler A, 2000. Lymphatic filariasis: economic aspects of the disease and programmes for its elimination. Trans R Soc Trop Med Hyg 94 : 592–593. [Google Scholar]
  9. Mwobobia IK, Muniu EM, Kombe Y, 2000. Hydrocelectomy: a proxy for hydrocele prevalence in coastal Kenya. Ann Trop Med Parasitol 94 : 479–484. [Google Scholar]
  10. DeVries CR, 2002. The role of the urologist in the treatment and elimination of lymphatic filariasis worldwide. Br J Urol Int 89 (Suppl 1) : 37–43. [Google Scholar]
  11. Richards F, Gonzales-Peralta C, Jallah E, Miri E, 1996. Community-based distributors in the delivery of ivermectin: onchocerciasis control at the village level in Plateau State, Nigeria. Acta Trop 61 : 137–144. [Google Scholar]
  12. Miri ES, 1998. Problems and perspectives of managing an onchocerciasis control programme. Ann Trop Med Parasitol 92 : S121–S128. [Google Scholar]
  13. Hopkins DR, Eigege A, Miri ES, Gontor I, Ogah G, Umaru J, Gwomkudu CC, Mathai W, Jinadu M, Amadiegwu S, Oyenekan OK, Korve K, Richards FO, Jr, 2002. Lymphatic filariasis elimination and schistosomiasis control in combination with onchocerciasis control in Nigeria. Am J Trop Med Hyg 67 : 266–272. [Google Scholar]
  14. Schweitzer FAW, 2001. Hydrocele. Trop Doct 31 : 113–114. [Google Scholar]
  15. Eberhard ML, Hightower AW, Addiss DG, Lammie PJ, 1997. Clearance of Wuchereria bancrofti antigen after treatment with diethylcarbamazine or ivermectin. Am J Trop Med Hyg 57 : 483–486. [Google Scholar]
  16. Michael E, Grenfell BT, Bundy DA, 1994. The association between microfilaraemia and disease in lymphatic filariasis. Proc R Soc London B Biol Sci 256 : 33–40. [Google Scholar]
  17. Addiss DG, Dimock KA, Eberhard ML, Lammie PJ, 1995. Clinical, parasitologic, and immunologic observations of patients with hydrocele and elephantiasis in an area with endemic lymphatic filariasis. J Infect Dis 171 : 755–758. [Google Scholar]

Data & Media loading...

Most Cited This Month

This is a required field
Please enter a valid email address
Approval was a Success
Invalid data
An Error Occurred
Approval was partially successful, following selected items could not be processed due to error