1921
Volume 68, Issue 5
  • ISSN: 0002-9637
  • E-ISSN: 1476-1645

Abstract

Malaria and leptospirosis are both common in the tropics. Simultaneous infections are possible, although not previously reported. We report two cases of malaria from an area of Thailand on the Thailand-Myanmar border with compelling serologic evidence of simultaneous acute leptospirosis. One was a case of infection with with acute and convalescent microscopic agglutination test (MAT) titers for serovar icterohaemorrhagiae of 1:200 and 1:1,600, respectively. The other was a case of infection with that seroconverted to a titer of 1:3,200 for serovar bataviae. Additionally, there were five probable cases of leptospirosis with patent malaria parasitemia (three and two ) detected. Management of dual infections is complicated by their similar clinical presentations, and because the confirmatory diagnosis of malaria is readily available as opposed to that of leptospirosis. Treatment focusing on malaria mono-infections instead of dual infections could result in a delay of specific therapy for leptospirosis and possible consequences of serious complications.

Loading

Article metrics loading...

/content/journals/10.4269/ajtmh.2003.68.583
2003-05-01
2017-11-22
Loading full text...

Full text loading...

/deliver/fulltext/14761645/68/5/0680583.html?itemId=/content/journals/10.4269/ajtmh.2003.68.583&mimeType=html&fmt=ahah

References

  1. Sulzer AJ, Sulzer KR, Cantella RA, Colichon H, Latorre CR, Welch M, 1978. Study of coinciding foci of malaria and leptospirosis in the Peruvian Amazon area. Trans R Soc Trop Med Hyg 72 : 76–83.
  2. Ravindran B, Sahoo PK, Dash AP, 1998. Lymphatic filariasis and malaria: concomitant parasitism in Orissa, India. Trans R Soc Trop Med Hyg 92 : 21–23.
  3. Graham SM, Walsh AL, Molyneux EM, Phiri AJ, Molyneux ME, 2000. Clinical presentation of non-typhoidal Salmonella bacteraemia in Malawian children. Trans R Soc Trop Med Hyg 94 : 310–314.
  4. Levett PN, Branch SL, Edwards CN, 2000. Detection of dengue infection in patients investigated for leptospirosis in Barbados. Am J Trop Med Hyg 62 : 112–114.
  5. Flannery B, Pereira MM, Velloso L de F, Carvalho C de C, de Codes LG, Orrico G de S, Dourado CM, Riley LW, Reis MG, Ko AI, 2001. Referral pattern of leptospirosis cases during a large urban epidemic of dengue. Am J Trop Med Hyg 65: 657–663.
  6. Kudesia G, Christie P, Walker E, Pinkerton I, Lloyd G, 1988. Dual infection with Leptospira and hantavirus (letter). Lancet 1 : 1397.
  7. Markotic A, Kuzman I, Babic K, Gagro A, Nichol S, Ksiazek TG, Rabatic S, Dekaris D, 2002. Double trouble: hemorrhagic fever with renal syndrome and leptospirosis. Scand J Infect Dis 34 : 221–224.
  8. Levi GC, 1998. Management of opportunistic infections in HIV(+) patients: contrasts between Europe and South America. Braz J Infect Dis 2 : 118–127.
  9. Flatau E, Reichman N, Elias M, Raz R, 2000. Malaria and Borrelia co-infection. J Travel Med 7 : 98–99.
  10. Magill AJ, 1998. Fever in the returned traveler. Infect Dis Clin North Am 12 : 445–469.
  11. Smits HL, Hartskeerl RA, Terpstra WJ, 2000. International multi-centre evaluation of a dipstick assay for human leptospirosis. Trop Med Int Health 5 : 124–128.
  12. Effler PV, Bogard AK, Domen HY, Katz AR, Higa HY, Sasaki DM, 2002. Evaluation of eight rapid screening tests for acute leptospirosis in Hawaii. J Clin Microbiol 40 : 1464–1469.
  13. Levett PN, 2001. Leptospirosis. Clin Microbiol Rev 14 : 296–326.
  14. Faine S, 1988. Leptospirosis. Turano A, ed. Laboratory Diagnosis of Infectious Diseases: Principles and Practice. New York: Springer-Verlag.
  15. Vinetz JM, 2001. Leptospirosis. Curr Opin Infect Dis 14 : 527–538.
  16. Panaphut T, Domrongkitchaiporn S, Thinkamrop B, 2002. Prognostic factors of death in leptospirosis: a prospective cohort study in Khon Kaen, Thailand. Int J Infect Dis 6 : 52–59.
  17. Tangkanakul W, Tharmaphornpil P, Plikaytis BD, Bragg S, Poonsuksombat D, Choomkasien P, Kingnate D, Ashford DA, 2000. Risk factors associated with leptospirosis in northeastern Thailand, 1998. Am J Trop Med Hyg 63 : 204–208.
  18. Niwattayakul K, Homvijitkul J, Khow O, Sitprija V, 2002. Leptospirosis in northeastern Thailand: hypotension and complications. Southeast Asian J Trop Med Public Health 33 : 155–160.
http://instance.metastore.ingenta.com/content/journals/10.4269/ajtmh.2003.68.583
Loading
/content/journals/10.4269/ajtmh.2003.68.583
Loading

Data & Media loading...

  • Received : 24 Oct 2002
  • Accepted : 03 Jan 2003

Most Cited This Month

This is a required field
Please enter a valid email address
Approval was a Success
Invalid data
An Error Occurred
Approval was partially successful, following selected items could not be processed due to error