Volume 68, Issue 5
  • ISSN: 0002-9637
  • E-ISSN: 1476-1645


The purpose of this study was to determine the prevalence of IgM and IgG antibodies against and in a healthy Greek population using a commercially available immunofluorescent test (Focus test). Five hundred healthy individuals were divided by sex into four age groups and three groups according to contact with cats. IgM antibodies were not detected in any of the subjects examined, while 99 (19.8%) and 75 (15%) were IgG seropositive to and to , respectively. No statistical difference in the seropositivity was observed among these groups. The IgG antibody titers ranged from 1/64 to 1/256 for and from 1/64 to 1/512 for . A high percentage (12.4%) of cross-reactivity between the two species was observed. Our data show that the prevalence of both species in Greece is high. However, low IgG antibody levels are not sufficient evidence of active infection.


Article metrics loading...

The graphs shown below represent data from March 2017
Loading full text...

Full text loading...



  1. Maurin M., Birtles R, Raoult D, 1997. Current knowledge of Bartonella species. Eur J Clin Microbiol Infect Dis 16: 487–506. [Google Scholar]
  2. Karem KL, Paddock CD, Regnery RL, 2000. Bartonella henselae, Bartonella quintana and Bartonella bacilliformis: historical pathogens of emerging significance. Microbes Infect 2 : 1193–1205. [Google Scholar]
  3. Childs JE, Olson JG, Wolf A, Cohen N, Fakile Y, Rooney JA, Bacellar F, Regnery RL, 1995. Prevalence of antibodies to Rochalimea species (cat-scratch disease agent) in cats. Vet Rec 20 : 519–520. [Google Scholar]
  4. Karpathios T, Golphinos C, Psychou P, Garoufi A, Papadimitriou A Nicolaidou P, 1998. at scratch disease in Greece. Arch Dis Child 78 : 64–66. [Google Scholar]
  5. Antoniou M, Economou I, Wang X, Psaroulaki A, Spyridaki I, Papadopoulos B, Christidou A, Tsafantakis E, Tselentis Y, 2002. Fourteen-year seroepidemiological study of zoonoses in a Greek village. Am J Trop Med Hyg 66 : 80–85. [Google Scholar]
  6. Piemont Y, Bermon D, 2001. Infections caused by Bartonella spp. Ann Biol Clin (Paris) 59 : 593–604. [Google Scholar]
  7. Ohl ME, Spach DH, 2000. Bartonella quintana urban trench fever. Clin Infect Dis 31 : 131–135. [Google Scholar]
  8. Chomel BB, 2000. Cat-scratch disease. Rev Sci Tech 19 : 136–150. [Google Scholar]
  9. Dalton MJ, Robinson LE, Cooper JL, Regnery RL, Olson JG, Childs JE, 1995. Use of Bartonella antigens for serologic diagnosis of cat-scratch disease at a national referral center. Arch Intern Med 155 : 1670–1675. [Google Scholar]
  10. Bergmans AMC, Peeters MF, Schellekens JFP, Vos MC, Sabble LJ, Ossewdarde JM, Verbakel H, Hooft HJ, Schouls LM, 1997. Pitfalls and fallacies of cat-scratch disease serology: evaluation of Bartonella henselae-based indirect fluorescence assay and enzyme-linked immunoassay. J Clin Microbiol 35 : 1931–1937. [Google Scholar]
  11. Zbinden R, Michael N, Sekulovski M, Graevenitz A, Nadal D, 1997. Evaluation of commercial slides for detection of immunoglobulin G against Bartonella henselae by indirect immunofluorescence. Eur J Clin Microbial Infect Dis 16 : 648–652. [Google Scholar]
  12. Sander A, Posselt M, Oberle K, Bredt W, 1998. Seroprevalence of antibodies to Bartonella henselae in patients with cat-scratch disease and in healthy controls: evaluation and comparison of two commercial serological tests. Clin Diagn Lab Immunol 5 : 486–490. [Google Scholar]
  13. Harrison TG, Doshi N, 1999. Serological evidence of Bartonella spp. in the UK. Epidemiol Infect 123 : 233–240. [Google Scholar]
  14. Not T, Canciani M, Buratti E, dal Molin G, Tommasini A, Trevisiol C, Ventura A, 1999. Serologic response to Bartonella henselae in patients with cat scratch disease and in sick and healthy children. Acta Pediatr 88 : 284–289. [Google Scholar]
  15. Sander A, Berner R, Ruess M, 2001. Serodiagnosis of cat scratch disease: response to Bartonella henselae in children and review of diagnostic methods. Eur J Clin Microbiol Infect Dis 20 : 392–401. [Google Scholar]
  16. Maurin M, Rolain JM, Raoult D, 2002. Comparison of in-house and commercial slides for detection by immunofluorescence of immunoglobulins G and M against Bartonella henselae and Bartonella quintana. Clin Diagn Lab Immunol 9 : 1004–1009. [Google Scholar]
  17. La Scola B, Raoult D, 1996. Serological cross-reactions between Bartonella quintana, Bartonella henselae, and Coxiella burnetii. J Clin Microbiol 34 : 2270–2274. [Google Scholar]
  18. Holmes AH, Greenough TC, Balady GJ, 1995. Bartonella henselae endocarditis in an immunocompetent adult. Clin Infect Dis 21 : 1004–1007. [Google Scholar]
  19. Maurin M, Eb F, Etienne J, Raoult D, 1997. Serological cross-reactions between Bartonella and Chlamydia species: implications for diagnosis. J Clin Microbiol 35 : 2283–2287. [Google Scholar]

Data & Media loading...

  • Received : 14 Nov 2002
  • Accepted : 20 Jan 2003

Most Cited This Month

This is a required field
Please enter a valid email address
Approval was a Success
Invalid data
An Error Occurred
Approval was partially successful, following selected items could not be processed due to error