Volume 68, Issue 5
  • ISSN: 0002-9637
  • E-ISSN: 1476-1645


We have identified for the first time , and the ticks that harbored them, in Kenya. A total of 5,325 ticks were collected from vegetation, livestock, and wild animals during two field trips to southwestern Kenya. Most were immature forms (85.2%) belonging to the genera or . The adults also included representatives from the genus . Ticks were assessed for rickettsial DNA by a polymerase chain reaction (PCR) using primers for the spotted fever group (SFG)–specific rickettsial outer membrane protein A () gene, and positive amplicons were sequenced. While none of the immature ticks tested positive by PCR, 15.8% of the adult and less than 1% of the spp. were SFG positive. Sequences of amplified products were identified as . These findings extend the known range of .


Article metrics loading...

The graphs shown below represent data from March 2017
Loading full text...

Full text loading...



  1. Pijper A, 1934. Tick-bite fever. S Afr Med J 8 : 551–556. [Google Scholar]
  2. Pijper A, 1936. Etude experimentale comparee de la Fievre boutonneuse et de la Tick-Bite-Fever. Arch Inst Pasteur Tunis 25 : 388–401. [Google Scholar]
  3. Gear J, Bevan C, 1936. An outbreak of tick-bite fever. S Afr Med J 10 : 485–488. [Google Scholar]
  4. Gear J, 1939. Complications in tick-bite fever. A survey of fifty cases. S Afr Med J 13 : 35–38. [Google Scholar]
  5. Kelly P, Mason P, 1990. Serological typing of spotted fever group rickettsia isolates from Zimbabwe. J Clin Microbiol 28 : 2302–2304. [Google Scholar]
  6. Burgdorfer W, Ormsbee R, Schmidt M, Hoogstraal H, 1973. A search for the epidemic typhus agent in Ethiopian ticks. Bull World Health Organ 48 : 563–569. [Google Scholar]
  7. Kelly P, Matthewman L, Beati L, Raoult D, Mason P, Dreary M, Makombe R, 1992. African tick-bite fever - a new spotted fever group rickettsiosis under an old name. Lancet 340 : 982–983. [Google Scholar]
  8. Kelly P, Mason P, Matthewman L, Raoult D, 1991. Seroepidemiology of spotted fever group rickettsial infections in humans in Zimbabwe. J Trop Med Hyg 94 : 304–309. [Google Scholar]
  9. Kelly P, Beati L, Mason P, Matthewman L, Roux V, Raoult D, 1996. Rickettsia africae sp nov, the etiological agent of African tick bite fever. Int J Syst Bacteriol 46 : 611–614. [Google Scholar]
  10. Brouqui P, Tissot-Dupont H, Drancourt M, Bourgeade A, Raoult D, 1992. Spotless boutonneuse fever. Clin Infect Dis 14 : 114–116. [Google Scholar]
  11. Brouqui P, Harle J, Delmont J, Frances C, Weiller P, Raoult D, 1997. African tickbite fever: an imported spotless rickettsiosis. Arch Intern Med 157 : 119–124. [Google Scholar]
  12. Regnery RL, Spruill CL, Plikaytis BD, 1991. Genotypic identification of rickettsiae and estimation of intraspecies sequence divergence for portions of two rickettsial genes. J Bacteriol 173 : 1576–1589. [Google Scholar]
  13. Roux V, Fournier P, Raoult D, 1996. Differentiation of spotted fever group rickettsiae by sequencing and analysis of restriction fragment length polymorphism of PCR-amplified DNA of the gene encoding the protein rompA. J Clin Microbiol 34 : 2058–2065. [Google Scholar]
  14. Parole P, Inokuma H, Camicas JL, Brouqui P, Raoult D, 2001. Detection and identification of spotted fever group rickettsiae and Ehrlichiae in African ticks. Emerg Infect Dis 7 : 1014–1017. [Google Scholar]
  15. Fournier P, Rou4x V, Caumes E, Donzel M, Raoult D, 1998. Outbreak of Rickettsia africae infections in participants of an adventure race in South Africa. Clin Infect Dis 27 : 316–323. [Google Scholar]
  16. Raoult D, Fournier PE, Fenollar F, Jensenius M, Prioe T, de Pina JJ, Caruso G, Jones N, Laferl H, Rosenblatt JE, Marrie TJ, 2001. Rickettsia africae, a tick-borne pathogen in travelers to sub-Saharan Africa. N Engl J Med 344 : 1504–1510. [Google Scholar]
  17. Raoult D, Roux V, 1997. Rickettsioses as paradigms of a new or emerging infectious diseases. Clin Microbiol Rev 10 : 694–719. [Google Scholar]
  18. Smoak BL, McClain JB, Brundage JF, Broadhurst L, Kelly DJ, Dasch GA, Miller RN, 1996. An outbreak of spotted fever rickettsiosis in U.S. Army troops deployed to Botswana. Emerg Infect Dis 2 : 217–221. [Google Scholar]
  19. Jensenius M, Hoel T, Raoult D, Fournier PE, Kjelshus H, Bruu AL, Myrvang B, 2002. Seroepidemiology of Rickettsia africae infection in Norwegian travelers to rural Africa. Scand J Infect Dis 34 : 93–96. [Google Scholar]
  20. Tissot-Dupont H, Cornet JP, Raoult D, 1994. Identification of rickettsiae from ticks collected in the Central African Republic using the polymerase chain reaction. Am J Trop Med Hyg 50 : 373–380. [Google Scholar]

Data & Media loading...

  • Received : 22 Oct 2002
  • Accepted : 15 Jan 2003

Most Cited This Month

This is a required field
Please enter a valid email address
Approval was a Success
Invalid data
An Error Occurred
Approval was partially successful, following selected items could not be processed due to error