1921
The western Kenya insecticide-treated bed net trial
  • ISSN: 0002-9637
  • E-ISSN: 1476-1645

Abstract

The effect of permethrin-treated bed nets (ITNs) on malaria vectors was studied as part of a large-scale, randomized, controlled trial in western Kenya. Indoor resting densities of fed and in intervention houses were 58.5% ( = 0.010) and 94.5% ( = 0.001) lower, respectively, compared with control houses. The sporozoite infection rate in was 0.8% in intervention areas compared with 3.4% ( = 0.026) in control areas, while the sporozoite infection rates in were not significantly different between the two areas. We estimated the overall transmission of in intervention areas to be 90% lower than in control areas. Permethrin resistance was not detected during the study period. As measured by densities of , the efficacy of bed nets decreased if one or more residents did not sleep under a net or if bed nets had not been re-treated within six months. These results indicate that ITNs are optimally effective if used every night and if permethrin is reapplied at least biannually.

Loading

Article metrics loading...

/content/journals/10.4269/ajtmh.2003.68.16
2003-04-01
2017-11-25
Loading full text...

Full text loading...

/deliver/fulltext/14761645/68/4_suppl/0680016.html?itemId=/content/journals/10.4269/ajtmh.2003.68.16&mimeType=html&fmt=ahah

References

  1. Lindsay SW, Snow RW, Broomfield GI, Janneh MS, Wirtz RA, Greenwood BM, 1989. Impact of permethrin treated bednets on malaria transmission by the Anopheles gambiae complex in The Gambia. Med Vet Entomol 3 : 263–271.
  2. Mbogo CNM, Baya NM, Ofulla AVO, Githure JI, Snow RW, 1996. The impact of permethrin-impregnated bednets on malaria vectors of the Kenyan coast. Med Vet Entomol 10 : 251–259.
  3. Bögh C, Pedersen EM, Mukoko DA, Ouma JH, 1998. Permethrin-impregnated bednet effects on resting and feeding behaviour of lymphatic filariasis vector mosquitoes in Kenya. Med Vet Entomol 12 : 52–59.
  4. Cuzin-Ouattara N, Van den Broek AHA, Habluetzel A, Diabate A, Sanogo-Ilboudo E, Diallo DA, Cousens SN, Esposito F, 1999. Wide-scale installation of insecticide-treated curtains confers high levels of protection against malaria transmission in a hyperendemic area of Burkina Faso. Trans R Soc Trop Med Hyg 93 : 473–479.
  5. D’Alessandro U, Olaleye BO, McGuire W, Langerock P, Bennett S, Aikins MK, Thomson MC, Cham MK, Cham BA, Greenwood BM, 1995. Mortality and morbidity from malaria in Gambian children after introduction of an impregnated bed net programme. Lancet 345 : 479–483.
  6. Binka FN, Kubaje A, Adjuik M, Williams LA, Lengeler C, Maude GH, Armah GE, Kajihara B, Adiamah JH, Smith PG, 1996. Impact of permethrin impregnated bednets on child mortality in Kassena-Nankana district, Ghana: a randomized controlled trial. Trop Med Int Health 1 : 147–154.
  7. Nevill CG, Some ES, Mung’ala VO, Mutemi W, New L, Marsh K, Lengeler C, Snow RW, 1996. Insecticide-treated bednets reduce mortality and severe morbidity from malaria among children on the Kenyan coast. Trop Med Int Health 1 : 139–146.
  8. Habluetzel A, Diallo DA, Esposito F, Lamizana L, Pagnoni F, Lengeler C, Traore C, 1997. Do insecticide-treated curtains reduce all-cause child mortality in Burkina Faso. Trop Med Int Health 2 : 855–862.
  9. Phillips-Howard PA, Nahlen B, Alaii JA, ter Kuile FO, Gimnig JE, Terlouw DJ, Kachur SP, Hightower AW, Lal AA, Schoute E, Oloo AJ, Hawley WA, 2003. The efficacy of permethrin-treated bed nets on child mortality and morbidity in western Kenya. I: Development of infrastructure and description of study site. Am J Trop Med Hyg 68 (Suppl 4): 3–9.
  10. Phillips-Howard PA, ter Kuile FO, Nahlen BL, Alaii JA, Gimnig JE, Kolczak MS, Terlouw DJ, Kariuki SK, Shi YP, Kachur SP, Hightower AW, Vulule JM, Hawley WA, 2003. The efficacy of permethrin-treated bed nets on child mortality and morbidity in western Kenya. II: Study design and methods. Am J Trop Med Hyg 68 (Suppl 4): 10–15.
  11. Beier JC, Perkins PV, Onyango FK, Gargan TP, Oster CN, Whitmore RE, Koech DK, Roberts CR, 1990. Characterization of malaria transmission by Anopheles (Diptera: Culicidae) in preparation for malaria vaccine trials. J Med Entomol 27 : 570–577.
  12. Beier JC, Oster CN, Onyango FK, Bales JD, Sherwood JA, Perkins PV, Chumo DK, Koech DV, Whitmire RE, Roberts CR, Diggs CL, Hoffman SL, 1994. Plasmodium falciparum incidence relative to entomologic inoculation rates at a site proposed for testing malaria vaccines in western Kenya. Am J Trop Med Hyg 50 : 529–536.
  13. McElroy PD, Beier JC, Oster CN, Beadle C, Sherwood JA, Oloo AJ, Hoffman SL, 1994. Predicting outcome in malaria: correlation between rate of exposure to infected mosquitoes and level of Plasmodium falciparum parasitemia. Am J Trop Med Hyg 51 : 523–532.
  14. Bloland PB, Boriga DA, Ruebush TK, McCormick JB, Roberts JM, Oloo AG, Hawley WA, Lal A, Nahlen B, Campbell CC, 1999. Longitudinal cohort study of the epidemiology of malaria infections in an area of intense malaria transmission II. Descriptive epidemiology of malaria infection and disease among children. Am J Trop Med Hyg 60 : 641–648.
  15. Alaii JA, Hawley WA, Kolczak MS, ter Kuile FO, Gimnig JE, Vulule JM, Odhacha A, Oloo AJ, Nahlen BL, Phillips-Howard PA, 2003. Factors affecting the use of permethrin-treated bed nets during a randomized controlled trial in western Kenya. Am J Trop Med Hyg 68 (Suppl 4): 137–141.
  16. Lines JD, Myamba J, Curtis CF, 1987. Experimental hut trials of permethrin-impregnated mosquito nets and curtains against malaria vectors in Tanzania. Med Vet Entomol 1 : 37–51.
  17. Lindsay SW, Adiamah JH, Miller JE, Armstrong JRM, 1991. Pyrethroid-treated bednet effects on mosquitoes of the Anopheles gambiae complex in The Gambia. Med Vet Entomol 5 : 477–483.
  18. Miller JE, Lindsay SW, Armstrong JRM, 1991. Experimental hut trials of bednets impregnated with synthetic pyrethroid and organophosphate insecticides for mosquito control in The Gambia. Med Vet Entomol 5 : 465–476.
  19. Service MW, 1993. Mosquito Ecology. Field Sampling Methods. Essex, United Kingdom: Elsevier Science Publishers.
  20. Wirtz RA, Zavala F, Charoenvit Y, Campbell GH, Burkot TR, Schneider I, Esser KM, Beaudoin RL, Andre RG, 1987. Comparative testing of monoclonal antibodies against Plasmodium falciparum sporozoites for ELISA development. Bull World Health Organ 65 : 39–45.
  21. Scott JA, Brogdon WG, Collins FH, 1993. Identification of single specimens of the Anopheles gambiae complex by the polymerase chain reaction. Am J Trop Med Hyg 49 : 520–529.
  22. WHO, 1981. Instructions for Determining the Susceptibility or Resistance of Adult Mosquitoes to Organochloride, Organophosphates and Carbamate Insecticides: Diagnostic Test. Geneva: World Health Organization.
  23. WHO, 1975. Manual on Practical Entomology in Malaria. Part II. Methods and Techniques. Geneva: World Health Organization.
  24. Richards FO Jr, Flores RZ, Sexton JD, Beach RF, Mount DL, Cordon-Rosales C, Gatica M, Klein RE, 1994. Effects of permethrin-impregnated bed nets on malaria vectors of northern Guatamala. Bull Pan Am Health Organ 28 : 112–121.
  25. Lindsay SW, Alonso PL, Armstrong Schellenberg JRM, Heminway J, Adiamah J, Shenton FC, Jawara M, Greenwood BM, 1993. A malaria control trial using insecticide-treated bednets and targeted chemoprophylaxis in a rural area of The Gambia, West Africa. 7. Impact of permethrin-impregnated bed nets on malaria vectors. Trans R Soc Trop Med Hyg 87 (Suppl 2): 45–51.
  26. Thomson MC, Adiamah JH, Conner SJ, Jawara M, Bennett S, D’Allessandro U, Quinones M, Langerock P, Greenwood BM, 1995. Entomological evaluation of the Gambia National Impregnated bednet Programme. Ann Trop Med Parasitol 89 : 229–241.
  27. Magbity EB, Marbiah NT, Maude G, Curtis CF, Bradley DJ, Greenwood BM, Petersen E, Lines J, 1997. Effects of community-wide use of lambdacyhalothrin-impregnated bednets on malaria vectors in rural Sierra Leone. Med Vet Entomol 11 : 79–86.
  28. Quinones ML, Lines J, Thomson MC, Jawara M, Greenwood BM, 1998. Permethrin-treated bed nets do not have a ‘mass-killing effect’ on village populations of Anopheles gambiae s.l. in The Gambia. Trans R Soc Trop Med Hyg 92 : 373–378.
  29. Gillies MT, De Meillon B, 1968. The Anophelinae of Africa, South of the Sahara. Johannesburg, South Africa: South African Institute of Medical Research.
  30. Mathenge EM, Gimnig JE, Kolczak M, Ombok M, Irungu LW, Hawley WA, 2001. Effect of permethrin-impregnated nets on exiting behavior, blood feeding success, and time of feeding of malaria mosquitoes (Diptera: Culicidae) in western Kenya. J Med Entomol 38 : 531–536.
  31. Magesa SM, Wilkes TJ, Mnzava AEP, Njunwa KJ, Myamba J, Kivuyo MDP, Hill N, Lines JD, Curtis CF, 1991. Trial of pyrethroid-impregnated bednets in an area of Tanzania holoendemic for malaria. 2. Effects on the malaria vector population. Acta Trop 49 : 97–108.
  32. Hossain MI, Curtis CF, Heekin JP, 1989. Assays of permethrin-impregnated fabrics and bioassays with mosquitoes. Bull Entomol Res 79 : 299–308.
  33. Curtis CF, Myamba J, Wilkes TJ, 1996. Comparison of different insecticides and fabrics for anti-mosquito bednets and curtains. Med Vet Entomol 10 : 1–11.
  34. Gimnig JE, Kolczak MS, Hightower AW, Vulule JM, Schoute E, Kamau L, Phillips-Howard PA, ter Kuile FO, Nahlen BL, Hawley WA, 2003. Effect of permethrin-treated bed nets on the spatial distribution of malaria vectors in western Kenya. Am J Trop Med Hyg 68 (Suppl 4): 115–120.
  35. Vulule JM, Beach RF, Atieli FK, Roberts JM, Mount DL, Mwangi RW, 1994. Reduced susceptibility of Anopheles gambiae to permethrin associated with the use of permethrin-impregnated bednets and curtains in Kenya. Med Vet Entomol 8 : 71–75.
  36. Vulule JM, Beach RF, Atieli FK, Mount DL, Roberts JM, Mwangi RW, 1996. Long-term use of permethrin impregnated nets does not increase Anopheles gambiae permethrin tolerance. Med Vet Entomol 10 : 71–79.
http://instance.metastore.ingenta.com/content/journals/10.4269/ajtmh.2003.68.16
Loading
/content/journals/10.4269/ajtmh.2003.68.16
Loading

Data & Media loading...

Most Cited This Month

This is a required field
Please enter a valid email address
Approval was a Success
Invalid data
An Error Occurred
Approval was partially successful, following selected items could not be processed due to error