Volume 66, Issue 1
  • ISSN: 0002-9637
  • E-ISSN: 1476-1645


Malaria transmission in the central highlands of Madagascar was interrupted in the 1960s by a national control program that used DDT indoor spraying and mass treatment with chloroquine. At the end of the 1980s in this region, epidemic malaria reappeared. Italian health authorities provided technical assistance to the National Malaria Control Program since the beginning of the resurgence of malaria in the central highlands. Yearly residual house spraying performed for 5 years (1993-1998) and the availability of antimalarial drugs reduced malaria transmission to very low levels, with improvement in parasitologic and entomologic indexes. A significant reduction of malaria prevalence was observed in the villages located at altitudes of 1,000-1,500 m, corresponding to the stratum of unstable malaria that was the main target of the antivector interventions. A significant reduction of malaria prevalence was also observed in the villages located at altitudes of 900-1,000 m, where malaria transmission is stable. The main vector Anopheles funestus was dramatically reduced in abundance and distribution in the sprayed areas.


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