Volume 65, Issue 5
  • ISSN: 0002-9637
  • E-ISSN: 1476-1645


A case of fatal strongyloidiasis associated with human T-cell lymphotropic virus type 1 (HTLV-1) infection is described in a 45-year-old West Indian man living in an area endemic for both strongyloidiasis and HTLV-1 infection. Clinical presentation was typical with severe diarrhea, vomiting, and progressive weight loss. Stool microscopy revealed Strongyloides stercoralis rhabditiform larvae. Despite treatment with thiabendazole, the patient died. Autopsy findings revealed severe ileocolitis due to Strongyloides larvae, right subdiaphragmatic pyogenic abscess, and severe pleuritis of the right lower lobe of the lung. This case illustrates that despite effective antihelmintic therapy, mortality is still high in patients with the hyperinfective state of S. stercoralis. Thus, in patients in areas endemic for both Strongyloides infection and HTLV-1, or in immigrants from these areas, repeated stool microscopy is indicated in patients positive for HTLV-1.


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