Volume 62, Issue 6
  • ISSN: 0002-9637
  • E-ISSN: 1476-1645


To evaluate the transmission risk of four live dengue (DEN) vaccine candidates developed by the U.S. Army (DEN-1, 45AZ5 PDK 20; DEN-2, S16803 PDK 50; DEN-3, CH53489 PDK 20; and DEN-4, 341750 PDK 20), we tested 3,010 Aedes aegypti and 1,576 Aedes albopictus mosquitoes blood-fed on 21 volunteers who had been administered one of the four vaccine candidates or the licensed yellow fever (YF) vaccine (17D). We used an indirect immunofluorescence assay (IFA) to detect DEN or YF viral antigen in the heads of mosquitoes. Corresponding to the lack of a detectable viremia among volunteers inoculated 8-13 days previously with live DEN-1 or DEN-2 vaccine candidates, only six mosquitoes developed disseminated infections after feeding on these volunteers. These six mosquitoes included 4 of 247 Ae. albopictus fed on volunteers inoculated with the DEN-1 vaccine candidate and 2 of 528 Ae. aegypti fed on volunteers inoculated with the DEN-2 vaccine candidate. Infection was confirmed in each of these IFA-positive mosquitoes by isolating infectious virus from the mosquito's body in Vero-cell culture. None of the 1,252 or the 969 mosquitoes fed on DEN-3 or DEN-4 recipients, respectively, were infected. Overall, dissemination rates in Ae. albopictus and Ae. aegypti were low. Dissemination rates were 0.5%, 0.3%, < 0.1%, and < 0.1% for the DEN-1 through DEN-4 vaccine candidates, respectively. Because of the observed low dissemination rates, it is unlikely that these vaccine viruses would be transmitted under natural conditions.


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