image of Risk Factors of Leishmania Infection among HIV-Infected Patients in Trang Province, Southern Thailand: A Study on Three Prevalent Species
  • ISSN: 0002-9637
  • E-ISSN: 1476-1645


There are two main species of reported in Thailand, that is, and Moreover, leishmaniasis cases caused by complex were also reported. There is still a lack of information concerning risk factors of infection in Thailand. This study aimed to identify the risk factors of infection caused by these three species among HIV-infected patients. A cross-sectional study was conducted in HIV clinic at Trang Hospital, Thailand. Nested PCR and sequencing were performed to detect DNA in blood and saliva samples and identify species. A standardized questionnaire was used to interview individuals. A total of 526 patients were recruited in this study. Sixty-three (12%) were positive for , 24 (4.6%) were positive for , and 23 (4.4%) were positive for complex. Risk factors of infection included using intravenous drug (adjusted odds ratio [AOR] 2.01, 95% CI: 1.01–4.02). Risk factors of infection included female gender (AOR 4.23, 95% CI: 1.52–11.75), using recreational drug (AOR 3.43, 95% CI: 1.00–11.74), and having comorbidities (AOR 4.94, 95% CI: 2.00–12.21). Risk factors of complex infection included having opportunistic infection (AOR 4.22, 95% CI: 1.00–17.79), CD4 count 200–500 cells/mm (AOR 3.64, 95% CI: 1.14–6.86), and not using insect repellent (AOR 3.04, 95% CI: 1.08–8.58). This study identified the risk factors of infection caused by three species in Thailand. The data could be useful for disease prevention and control. Further studies on trends of infection and preventive measures are recommended.


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  • Received : 22 Apr 2020
  • Accepted : 15 Jun 2020
  • Published online : 20 Jul 2020
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