image of Incidence of Animal-Bite Injuries Registered in Public Hospitals of Post-Conflict Swat District, Pakistan in 2014
  • ISSN: 0002-9637
  • E-ISSN: 1476-1645


The Swat district, a conflict-hit territory due to Taliban militancy, had a damaged local health infrastructure. Animal-bite injuries leading to rabies is one of the major health concerns in developing countries, especially within conflict zones. The current prospective epidemiological study was conducted to estimate the cumulative incidence of animal-bite injuries, to summarize characteristics of bite victims and biting animals, and to collect information about post-exposure prophylaxis (PEP) practices in Swat district, Pakistan, during 2014. A questionnaire was designed to collect data about the sociodemography of the patients, bite incident situation (provoked or unprovoked), injury pattern, animal type, PEP, and vaccination. Descriptive analyses were conducted using bar graphs, frequency tables, and chi-square tests were used to determine associations. The cumulative incidence of animal-bite injuries was 39 per 100,000 people during the study period (May–August 2014). The majority of incidents were reported from rural regions (77.7%) and were males (76.6%) younger than 10 years (37.3%). Dogs were the most frequent biting animal (86.8%) followed by rats (4.7%). About 77.7% patients washed their wound before arrival at hospital. After an eclipse phase of 10 days, 44 (10.1%) animals developed sign of rabies. The current study has highlighted a topic of interest for health, education, veterinary, and local government policy makers regarding prevention of animal bites, benefits of PEP, vaccination of human and domestic animals, control of stray dogs, and eradication of rabies in developing countries with damaged healthcare structures.


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  • Received : 22 Mar 2020
  • Accepted : 06 Sep 2020
  • Published online : 12 Oct 2020
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