Volume 103, Issue 3
  • ISSN: 0002-9637
  • E-ISSN: 1476-1645



Zoonotic pathogens such as arboviruses have comprised a significant proportion of emerging infectious diseases in humans. The role of wildlife species as reservoirs for arboviruses is poorly understood, especially in endemic areas such as Southeast Asia. This study aims to determine the exposure history of different macaque species from national parks in Thailand to mosquito-borne flaviviruses and alphavirus by testing the serum samples collected from 25 northern pigtailed macaques, 33 stump-tailed macaques, and 4 long-tailed macaques for the presence of antibodies against dengue, Zika, and chikungunya viruses by plaque reduction neutralization assay. Specific neutralizing antibodies against Dengue virus (DENV1-4) and Zika virus (ZIKV) were mainly found in stump-tailed macaques, whereas neutralizing antibody titers were not detected in long-tailed macaques and pigtailed macaques as determined by 90% plaque reduction neutralization assay (PRNT). One long-tailed macaque captured from the south of Thailand exhibited antibody titers against chikungunya virus (CHIKV), suggesting enzootic of this virus to nonhuman primates (NHPs) in Thailand. Encroachment of human settlements into the forest has increased the interface that exposes humans to zoonotic pathogens such as arboviruses found in monkeys. Nonhuman primates living in different regions of Thailand showed different patterns of arboviral infections. The presence of neutralizing antibodies among wild monkeys in Thailand strongly suggests the existence of sylvatic cycles for DENV, ZIKV, and CHIKV in Thailand. The transmission of dengue, Zika, and chikungunya viruses among wild macaques may have important public health implications.


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  • Received : 21 Jan 2020
  • Accepted : 05 May 2020
  • Published online : 22 Jun 2020
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