Volume 103, Issue 2
  • ISSN: 0002-9637
  • E-ISSN: 1476-1645



Increasing antibiotic consumption has been shown to lead to increased antibiotic resistance selection. We evaluated the prevalence of antibiotic resistance in to commonly used antibiotic classes as well as correlations between resistance and antibiotic consumption at the individual and community levels in children aged 0–59 months in Nouna district, Burkina Faso. A population-based sample of 300 children aged 0–59 months was randomly selected from the most recent census in 18 communities in the Nouna Health and Demographic Surveillance Site. Caregivers were interviewed about children’s recent antibiotic use, and a nasopharyngeal swab was collected from each child. Nasopharyngeal swabs were processed using standard microbiological methods to determine pneumococcal carriage and resistance. Community-level antibiotic consumption was determined by record review from primary healthcare facilities, which routinely collect prescription data for children aged 0–59 months. was isolated from 101 (35.7%) nasopharyngeal samples. Among positive isolates, co-trimoxazole (75.6%) and tetracycline (69.3%) resistance was the most common, followed by oxacillin (26.7%) and azithromycin (9.9%). Recent antibiotic use was associated with decreased pneumococcal carriage (odds ratio 0.56, 95% CI: 0.33–0.93) at the individual level. There was no statistically significant relationship between antibiotic use and antibiotic resistance at the individual or community levels, although CIs were generally wide. The prevalence of antibiotic resistance to commonly used antibiotics was high in the study area. Expanding antimicrobial resistance surveillance in areas with little population-based data will be important for informing policy related to antibiotic use.


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  • Received : 20 Jan 2020
  • Accepted : 02 May 2020
  • Published online : 26 May 2020
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