Volume 60, Issue 6
  • ISSN: 0002-9637
  • E-ISSN: 1476-1645


In an initial cross-sectional survey, serum, urine, and stool samples were collected from 370 participants representing about 10% of the population (n = 4,438) in Behbeet village, 50 km south of Cairo, Egypt, an area well known to be endemic solely for Schistosoma haematobium. Diagnosis was approached in two parallel ways. The first approach, which simulated actual conditions in many endemic areas in Egypt, was based on physical examination and urine and stool microscopic analysis. The second approach was based on two advanced immunodiagnostic assay systems. One system detected antibodies to species-specific microsomal antigens, the other detected circulating schistosomal antigens. Microsomal antigens from S. haematobium and S. mansoni were used to detect antibodies in the Falcon assay screening test (FAST)-ELISA and the enzyme-linked immunoelectrotransfer blot (EITB). Circulating anodic antigen (CAA) and circulating cathodic antigen (CCA) were quantified in serum and urine samples in a sandwich ELISA using monoclonal antibodies. Parasitologically, the prevalence of S. haematobium was 7.01% in females and 25.82% in males, giving an overall prevalence of 15.8%. The combination of urine CCA and serum CAA for detecting circulating antigens and the combination of the S. haematobium adult worm microsomal antigens (HAMA) FAST-ELISA and the HAMA EITB for detecting antibodies significantly improved the sensitivity of detecting S. haematobium circulating antigens and antibodies. Also, including a medical examination as an integral part of field studies and correlating immunodiagnostic results with other clinical and investigational data allowed us to calculate an accurate estimation of S. haematobium prevalence in this area of low endemicity.


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