Volume 58, Issue 1
  • ISSN: 0002-9637
  • E-ISSN: 1476-1645


A randomized controlled trial investigated the impact of community-wide use of mosquito nets impregnated with lambda-cyhalothrin alone or with dapsone/pyrimethamine (d/p) prophylaxis on clinical malaria due to perennially transmitted Plasmodium falciparum in children in the Bo district of Sierra Leone. The 17 study communities were pair-matched and randomly allocated to receive treated mosquito nets or no nets and the children (age range = 3 months-6 years) in each community were randomly allocated to receive d/p or placebo individually every two weeks. This resulted in each of the approximately 2,000 children recruited being in one of four study groups (impregnated mosquito nets and d/p prophylaxis, impregnated mosquito nets, d/p prophylaxis, and controls). The intervention phase of the study lasted 12 months. A total of 1,800 children attended more than 25% of the 48 total weekly morbidity surveillance surveys and were included in the analysis. The effects of the exclusive use of either treated mosquito nets or d/p prophylaxis on protection against clinical malaria due to P. falciparum was significantly similar (49% and 42%, respectively), while in combination this protective efficacy was significantly increased to 72% (95% confidence interval = 67-76%). Children in the control group had an average of 1.3 clinical malaria episodes per child annually compared with 0.65 episodes or 0.78 episodes for those using treated mosquito nets and d/p, respectively. Children using both treated mosquito nets and d/p prophylaxis had an average of 0.37 episodes per child. The interventions significantly reduced spleen rates and increased hematocrit values, and reduced the duration of episodes of clinical malaria.


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