Volume 55, Issue 3
  • ISSN: 0002-9637
  • E-ISSN: 1476-1645



The development and testing of vaccines directed against has relied on and monkeys as the animal test system and on chimpanzees to provide infective gametocytes to produce sporozoites for monkey challenge studies and vaccine development. One sporozoite-induced and 29 blood-induced infections with the Salvador I strain of were studied in splenectomized chimpanzees. Eighteen primary infections with resulted in maximum parasite counts ranging from 1,519 to 81,810/µl (median 29,100/µl). Twelve infections induced in animals previously infected with the homologous or heterologous strains of had maximum parasite counts ranging from 155 to 14,136/µl (median 1,736/µl). A total of 202 of 237 lots containing a total of 293,175 , and mosquitoes were infected by membrane feeding on gametocytes from chimpanzees. Despite lower levels of parasitemia during secondary (reinfection) parasitemia, 66 of 70 lots of mosquitoes (94.3%) were infected. Based on the mean number of oocysts per positive mosquito gut, was more heavily infected than was more heavily infected than there was no significant difference between and . Sporozoites from , and infected with the Salvador I strain of produced in chimpanzees were used to infect 193 and six monkeys as well as one chimpanzee.


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