Volume 53, Issue 2
  • ISSN: 0002-9637
  • E-ISSN: 1476-1645



In Virginia, was more prevalent in a site along the Atlantic Ocean, near Maryland, than in an inland site near Williamsburg and Yorktown. At the coastal site on Assateague Island, was isolated from 4.2% of 475 animals sampled, including four species of small mammals. Serologic tests indicated that 25–37% of the small rodents assayed had been exposed to . Immunofluorescence antibody assays specific for showed spirochete infection in and but not in other species of ticks also examined from this site. At another coastal site (Parramore Island), no evidence of was found, no immature specimens of were collected, and no isolations were made from numerous raccoons or small mammals sampled. infection was found in one nymph, but not in numerous specimens of or other tick species from this locality. At the inland site between Williamsburg and Yorktown, was isolated from two small mammal species and antibodies to were found in only 7–10% of the small mammals sampled. were less abundant at this locality than at the Assateague Island site. spirochetes were found in and a single nymph of , but not in any of numerous specimens of four other species. Infection with was found in 20% of unfed adult from vegetation, but in only 0.2% of numerous adults from hunter-killed deer. Infection in immature ticks was much lower than at Assateague Island. may be more prevalent along the Atlantic coast than in inland areas. Isolations, seroprevalence, immature densities, and spirochete infection rates in ticks were higher at the Assateague Island site than the Williamsburg/Yorktown site. Consequently, the risk of human exposure to Lyme disease may be higher in some parts of the coastal area than elsewhere in Virginia. Overall, is less intense in Virginia than in the northeastern United States.


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