Volume 49, Issue 3
  • ISSN: 0002-9637
  • E-ISSN: 1476-1645



The in vitro activities of chloroquine, quinine, melfoquine, halofantrine, artemisinin, arteether, artemether, and artelinate were evaluated against African clones and isolates of , using an isotopic, semimicro, drug susceptibility test. The chloroquine-resistant FCM 29 clone was 1.6 and 6.2 times more susceptible to artemisinin when compared with the chloroquine-susceptible, mefloquine-, and halofantrine-resistant L-3 and L-16 clones, respectively. Cross-resistance patterns between the standard antimalarial drugs and artemisinin were determined against 36 African isolates of obtained from imported cases of malaria in France. Chloroquine-resistant isolates (n = 21) were significantly more susceptible to artemisinin (50% inhibitory concentration [IC] 7.67 nM), arteether (IC 3.88 nM), artemether (IC 3.71 nM), and artelinate (IC 3.46 nM), as compared with the 15 chloroquine-susceptible isolates (IC 11.4, 5.66, 5.14, and 5.04 nM, respectively). Arteether, artemether, and artelinate were equally effective and twice as potent as artemisinin. A significant positive correlation was found between artemisinin and mefloquine (r = 0.424, = 0.022), artemisinin and halofantrine (r = 0.569, < 0.001), chloroquine and quinine (r = 0.651, < 0.001), and mefloquine and halofantrine (r = 0.863, < 0.001), suggesting in vitro cross-resistance among these drugs. The present in vitro findings require confirmation in clinical studies.


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