Volume 38, Issue 2
  • ISSN: 0002-9637
  • E-ISSN: 1476-1645



The standard chloroquine treatment for malaria is 25 mg (base)/kg (C25) given over 3 days. In Rwanda, 50 mg/kg (C50) administered over 6 days has been recommended by the Faculty of Medicine, Ministry of Health. The present study compared clinical and parasitological efficacy and side effects of C25 and C50 in children ≤5 years of age. In vitro studies with chloroquine, mefloquine, pyrimethamine, and quinine were also performed. Ninety children were given a 3-day treatment of C25 and 48 a 5-day treatment of C50. Cases were followed for a total of 15 days (D0 to D14). At day 14, 73% of the C25 and 67% of the C50 children were still parasitemic, but the mean geometric parasite density had decreased by at least 96% in both groups. Clinically, 44 C25 and 12 C50 children had fever on day 0; by day 14 only 4 (9%) C25 and 4 (33%) C50 children still had fever. Side effects were found to be minimal. The chloroquine in vitro tests corroborated the in vivo findings. was found to be quite sensitive to mefloquine and quinine, but showed a high (59%) resistance to pyrimethamine.


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