Volume 31, Issue 5
  • ISSN: 0002-9637
  • E-ISSN: 1476-1645



Three personal protection methods were evaluated against phlebotomine sand flies in Panama. Skin applications of five selected repellents including deet (-diethyl--toluamide) provided a mean coefficient of protection (CP) of 99.2% against the attack of at least three sand fly species. Deet-treated net jackets also provided good protection, but it was concluded that an additional application of repellent to the unprotected face was necessary for maximum protection. Permethrin-treated clothing did not provide the protection expected. Apparently sand fly behavior and resistance to quick knock-down were responsible for the numbers of bites recorded, and therefore maximum protection from bites would require application of deet or another suitable repellent to the exposed skin when wearing permethrin-treated clothing.


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