Volume 28, Issue 6
  • ISSN: 0002-9637
  • E-ISSN: 1476-1645



Of 229 residents of a Panamanian village where both and are endemic, 52% had antibody to one or both species by the enzymelinked immunosorbent assay (ELISA), 26% were positive by complement fixation, 17% were positive by direct agglutination, and 32% were positive on the basis of clinical impression. Although the sensitivity of ELISA makes it the procedure of choice for sero-epidemiologic studies, there does appear to be some serologic cross-reactivity between the two species. Sera from 55 Panamanians and 33 Bolivians were reactive with antigens of and , thus making definitive diagnosis by serologic methods impossible. Although the presence of antibodies to both species suggests serologic cross-reactivity, the possibility of dual infection must be considered also. Fifty-four Panamanians and 20 Bolivians had antibody to only one species.


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