Volume 24, Issue 5
  • ISSN: 0002-9637
  • E-ISSN: 1476-1645



The complement fixation (CF), indirect immunofluorescence (IIF), and indirect hemagglutination (IHA) tests for malaria were compared by using sera from U.S. citizens with either natural infections or heroin-associated, needle-induced infectons. In natural infections, the CF, IIF, and IHA tests apparently detect malarial antibodies equally efficiently for the first 2 months after the onset of symptoms, but the titers obtained by CF and IIF rapidly decline within a year, while the IHA titers remain elevated. In the sera from heroin addicts who developed needle-induced infections, sensitivities of all three tests were decreased: the IIF and IHA tests each detected 83%, but the CF test detected only 57.1%. False-positive reactions with this group were very high for the CF (76.6%) and IHA (15.9%) tests, but only 2% for IIF.


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