Volume 21, Issue 5_Suppl
  • ISSN: 0002-9637
  • E-ISSN: 1476-1645



Based on experimental evidence the following fundamental characteristics of sporozoite-induced immunity have, so far, been established.

  • 1.  The sporozoite stage of malaria parasites is strongly immunogenic. The intravenous injection of small numbers of attenuated, X-irradiated sporozoites induces a high degree of protective immunity and formation of anti-sporozoite antibodies.
  • 2.  Sporozoite-induced immunity is highly stage-specific. Its effects are mainly directed against the sporozoite stage. The erythrocytic stages of the parasite are not affected by this immune mechanism.
  • 3.  Considerable cross-protection and serologic cross-reactivity occur among sporozoites of different rodent malaria strains and species.
  • 4.  Sporozoites undergo antigenic changes during their process of maturation. These might possibly be correlated with the development of sporozoite infectivity.
  • 5.  The spleen does not play an essential role in sporozoite-induced protective immunity. The immunization of splenectomized animals renders them resistant to sporozoite challenge in the absence of antibodies detectable by the CSP reaction.
  • 6.  Sporozoite-induced immunity is, at least in part, serum-mediated. The incubation of sporozoites with immune serum considerably reduces their infectivity. The passive transfer of immune serum considerably increases the rate of sporozite clearance observed in normal animals.
  • 7.  The non-specific stimulation of the reticulo-endothelial system which occurs during sporozoite immunization is very shortlived. This reticulo-endothelial system stimulation does not play an important role in protection against sporozoite challenge.


Article metrics loading...

Loading full text...

Full text loading...


Most Cited This Month

This is a required field
Please enter a valid email address
Approval was a Success
Invalid data
An Error Occurred
Approval was partially successful, following selected items could not be processed due to error