Volume 21, Issue 5_Suppl
  • ISSN: 0002-9637
  • E-ISSN: 1476-1645



Based on experimental evidence the following fundamental characteristics of sporozoite-induced immunity have, so far, been established.

  • 1.  The sporozoite stage of malaria parasites is strongly immunogenic. The intravenous injection of small numbers of attenuated, X-irradiated sporozoites induces a high degree of protective immunity and formation of anti-sporozoite antibodies.
  • 2.  Sporozoite-induced immunity is highly stage-specific. Its effects are mainly directed against the sporozoite stage. The erythrocytic stages of the parasite are not affected by this immune mechanism.
  • 3.  Considerable cross-protection and serologic cross-reactivity occur among sporozoites of different rodent malaria strains and species.
  • 4.  Sporozoites undergo antigenic changes during their process of maturation. These might possibly be correlated with the development of sporozoite infectivity.
  • 5.  The spleen does not play an essential role in sporozoite-induced protective immunity. The immunization of splenectomized animals renders them resistant to sporozoite challenge in the absence of antibodies detectable by the CSP reaction.
  • 6.  Sporozoite-induced immunity is, at least in part, serum-mediated. The incubation of sporozoites with immune serum considerably reduces their infectivity. The passive transfer of immune serum considerably increases the rate of sporozite clearance observed in normal animals.
  • 7.  The non-specific stimulation of the reticulo-endothelial system which occurs during sporozoite immunization is very shortlived. This reticulo-endothelial system stimulation does not play an important role in protection against sporozoite challenge.


Article metrics loading...

The graphs shown below represent data from March 2017
Loading full text...

Full text loading...

This is a required field
Please enter a valid email address
Approval was a Success
Invalid data
An Error Occurred
Approval was partially successful, following selected items could not be processed due to error