Volume 18, Issue 5
  • ISSN: 0002-9637
  • E-ISSN: 1476-1645



All states in West Malaysia except the island state of Penang were sampled for the distribution of in the water and soil, as determined by hamster inoculation. The terrain from which samples were taken was classified into several categories among which were primary forest, secondary forest, wet rice fields, and recently cleared areas. Isolations of were obtained from all states sampled and from all types of terrain. There were striking differences, however, in the low rate of isolation from surface water of forested lands (0.8 to 3.2%) and the high rate of isolation from wet rice fields and fields of newly planted oil palm (14.5 to 33.3%). Results of this investigation and other recent studies indicate that is a normal inhabitant of the soil and water. There is no evidence to suggest that this microorganism requires the rat or any other animal as a maintenance host.


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