Volume 12, Issue 2
  • ISSN: 0002-9637
  • E-ISSN: 1476-1645



In Paloich District of Upper Nile Province, Sudan, an area with a long history of heavy kalaazar endemicity, no infection was found in and laboratory experiments suggest that this sandfly species is an inefficient vector of strains of from man in this Province.

Pure pools of (average 6 or 7 flies per pool) from small villages showed a remarkably high infection rate—30 positives in 180 pools examined (16.7%). In forested areas within a mile of these villages, 35 of 347 (10.1%) pools were infected. (Individual dissection of 1,150 by Donald Heyneman revealed a comparable rate of infection and heavy, anterior concentrations of leptomonads, indicating the efficiency of this sandfly as a vector.) Of the hamsters into which infected sandfly pools were inoculated, 54% developed a visceral leishmaniasis clinically and pathologically identical to that produced by in these animals. Since all sandflies were collected while biting humans in an area of heavy kalaazar endemicity, this organism is probably . Four Nile Grass Rats, Dollman, were also found naturally infected with visceral leishmaniasis in forest sites in which numerous infected were taken.

No man-biting sandflies were found in grasslands, or in forests within a mile of the Nile. was widely distributed inland in and forests, as well as in small and larger villages in forest clearings and close to forests. In villages away from forests, was less common or absent. infections were found in wherever this sandfly occurred.

was present in established villages and was sometimes a serious pest. Except in a single locality about 200 yards from a village where small numbers of were taken, this species was extremely rare or absent in forested areas.


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