Volume 4, Issue 3
  • ISSN: 0002-9637
  • E-ISSN: 1476-1645



Each geographical region is characterized by schistosomes which infect man or lower animals, or both. In Africa and the Middle East, there are two categories of schistosomes, i.e., those of the -type producing terminally-spined eggs and those of the -type producing laterally-spined eggs. The parasite-host relationships of the schistosomes is not clearly understood at the present time. Representatives of the -complex, i.e., and probably others occurring in livestock, are of greater concern in human schistosomiasis. Recent discoveries of schistosomes of the -complex, i.e. and var in rodents and other animals indicate unusual parasite-host relationships with the possibility of concern in the epidemiology of schistosome infections.

Schistosomiasis haematobia in Portugal is unique since the causative agent, , is morphologically similar to its counterpart in Africa but is restricted in its distribution and is transmitted by .

Although a few autochthonous cases of schistosome infection in man have been reported, schistosomiasis in India at present is primarily a disease of livestock. The status of the schistosome problem in India may change with the recent discovery of an endemic focus of urinary schistosomiasis in the Bombay State.

In the Orient, is transmitted by several species of and infects man and a wide range of mammalian hosts over a large geographical area. Recent studies indicate the existence of geographical and physiologic strains of the parasite and its intermediate host. On Formosa, contrary to the situation in other areas of the Orient, is a parasite of lower mammals, man playing only a questionable role in its propagation. The Formosan schistosome has been designated as a “non-human” strain.

Geographical and physiologic strains of and its intermediate hosts in the Americas have been adequately demonstrated. Discovery of wild rodents infected with has altered the parasite-host relationships and epidemiological aspects of schistosomiasis in South America.

Schistosome dermatitis has not been differentiated from other types of dermal irritation in countries where the population is concerned with other more serious parasitic infections. In the Americas, however, schistosome dermatitis has received considerable recognition since it is widespread and occurs as a result of dermal invasion of man by animal schistosomes whose cercariae are present in fresh as well as marine waters.


Article metrics loading...

The graphs shown below represent data from March 2017
Loading full text...

Full text loading...

This is a required field
Please enter a valid email address
Approval was a Success
Invalid data
An Error Occurred
Approval was partially successful, following selected items could not be processed due to error