Volume s1-20, Issue 3
  • ISSN: 0002-9637
  • E-ISSN: 1476-1645



  • 1.  probably passes the winter in this latitude chiefly as inseminated adult females. No evidence of the survival of the immature stages has been discovered.
  • 2.  A fat reserve is accumulated in the autumn which gradually diminishes during the winter.
  • 3.  Hibernating females in caves may survive as long as 69 days without food.
  • 4.  The number of individuals in hibernating places reaches its maximum during the latter part of November.
  • 5.  A renewal of reproductive activity occurs early in February.
  • 6.  Autumn reared specimens survived the winter in a small outdoor cage.
  • 7.  Under artificial conditions during October, no evidence of gonotrophic dissociation was observed. The data regarding this phenomenon with reference to is not sufficient to warrant any conclusions.
  • 8.  During November and December ovarian development appears to be deterred at temperatures below 59°F. and stimulated at temperatures of 68°F. and above. Intermediate temperatures have not been explored.
  • 9.  The temperature ranged from 51.5° to 59.°F. between December 16 and January 27 in one cave where a continuous record was kept.
  • 10.  Oocysts were discovered on the stomach of one specimen found in a cave on December 1.


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  • Received : 09 Dec 1939
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