Volume 103, Issue 3
  • ISSN: 0002-9637
  • E-ISSN: 1476-1645



Nine criteria regarding the infectious agent, mode of transmission, portal of entry, route of spread, target organs, target cells, pathologic lesions, incubation period, and modifiable spectrum of disease and outcomes appropriate to the intended experimental purpose are described. To provide context for each criterion, mouse models of two vector-borne zoonotic infectious diseases, scrub typhus and dengue, are summarized. Application of the criteria indicates that intravenous inoculation of into inbred mice is the best current model for life-threatening scrub typhus, and intradermal inoculation accurately models sublethal human scrub typhus, whereas the immunocompromised mouse models of dengue provide disease outcomes most closely associated with human dengue. In addition to addressing basic questions of immune and pathogenic mechanisms, mouse models are useful for preclinical testing of experimental vaccines and therapeutics. The nine criteria serve as guidelines to evaluate and compare models of vector-borne infectious diseases.


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  • Received : 20 Dec 2019
  • Accepted : 05 Jun 2020
  • Published online : 29 Jun 2020
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