1921
Volume 103, Issue 2
  • ISSN: 0002-9637
  • E-ISSN: 1476-1645

Abstract

Abstract.

Mass drug administration (MDA) with azithromycin (AZ) has been used successfully to control trachoma. However, several studies have shown that MDA with AZ has led to the emergence of resistance to AZ in The emergence of resistance to AZ has also been observed when this antibiotic was combined with the antimalarials used for seasonal malaria chemoprevention (SMC). The development of antibiotic resistance, including resistance to AZ, is sometimes associated with the emergence of a bacterial clone that belongs to a specific serotype. We hypothesize that the increase in resistance of observed after 3 years of SMC with AZ might be associated with a change in the distribution of pneumococcal serotypes. Therefore, 698 randomly selected isolates from among the 1,468 isolates of obtained during carriage studies undertaken during an SMC plus AZ trial were serotyped. A polymerase chain reaction (PCR) multiplex assay using an algorithm adapted to the detection of the pneumococcal serotypes most prevalent in African countries was used for initial serotyping, and the Quellung technique was used to complement the PCR technique when necessary. Fifty-six serotypes were detected among the 698 isolates of . A swift appearance and disappearance of many serotypes was observed, but some serotypes including 6A, 19F, 19A, 23F, and 35B were persistent. The distribution of serotypes between isolates obtained from children who had received AZ or placebo was similar. An increase in AZ resistance was seen in several serotypes following exposure to AZ. Mass drug administration with AZ led to the emergence of resistance in pneumococci of several different serotypes and did not appear to be linked to the emergence of a single serotype.

[open-access] This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution (CC-BY) License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author and source are credited.

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  • Received : 18 Dec 2019
  • Accepted : 14 Apr 2020
  • Published online : 08 Jun 2020
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