image of Effect of a Community-Led Total Sanitation Intervention on Sanitation and Hygiene in Pallisa District, Uganda
  • ISSN: 0002-9637
  • E-ISSN: 1476-1645


We conducted a comparative cross-sectional study to examine the potential effects of a community-led total sanitation (CLTS) intervention on sanitation and hygiene in Pallisa district in Uganda. Quantitative data were collected from households using a semi-structured questionnaire and an observation checklist, entered and analyzed using univariate, bivariate, and multivariate analyses. Overall, knowledge on sanitation and hygiene was significantly higher (64.5%; 129/200) among households in the CLTS intervention than among those in the nonintervention subcounties (54.0%; 108/200) ( = 0.033). Latrine quality was rated as fair in a majority (73.3%; 143/195) of the CLTS intervention households compared with 50.8% (93/183) in the non-CLTS households ( < 0.001). Latrine cleanliness was rated as good in more than a half (51.3%; 100/195) of households in the intervention area, whereas only 13.7% (25/183) for the nonintervention area ( < 0.001). In this study, 35.0% (70/200) of the households in the intervention subcounty had attained open defecation-free (ODF) status compared with only 6.0% (12/200) in the nonintervention subcounty ( < 0.001). Level of knowledge on hygiene and sanitation (adjusted odd ratio [AOR]: 2.23; 95% CI: 1.24–4.03) and CLTS status (AOR: 8.89; 95% CI: 4.26–18.56) were significantly associated with achievement of ODF status in the multivariate analysis. The mean cases of diarrhea were significantly lower in CLTS implementing (subcounty (0.42 [SD ± 1.03]) than in the non-CLTS implementing subcounty (0.98 [SD ± 1.39]; = −4.6; < 0.001). Sanitation and hygiene outcomes were better in the CLTS intervention subcounty than in the non-CLTS intervention subcounty, suggesting that scaling up CLTS could reduce ODF and the burden of diarrheal diseases.


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  • Received : 07 Dec 2019
  • Accepted : 17 Jul 2020
  • Published online : 17 Aug 2020
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