Volume 102, Issue 4
  • ISSN: 0002-9637
  • E-ISSN: 1476-1645



Human liver fluke infection caused by increases the risk of cholangiocarcinoma (CCA) reported along the Mekong basin including Thailand, Lao People’s Democratic Republic (PDR), Cambodia, and Vietnam. The highest incidence of CCA has been reported in northeastern Thailand where liver fluke infection is prevalent. This study aimed to investigate the prevalence of infection in a northeastern-descendent community in rural Sa Kaeo Province, eastern Thailand, using stool examination and molecular technique. The Kato–Katz method was performed to determine eggs per gram (EPG) for infection intensity. Phosphate-buffered saline–ethyl acetate concentration was used to prepare specimens for polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and restriction fragment length polymorphism of the internal transcribed spacer 2 (ITS2) region of the ribosomal RNA. From 1,245 specimens, 105 (8.4%) samples were identified as -like eggs from stool examination, and all positive specimens indicated light infection (< 1,000 EPG). From positive -like egg samples, 55.2% (58/105) were identified as eggs from ITS2-PCR assay for which low infection intensity might result in a negative PCR result (44.8%). Using multiple logistic regression analysis, males were at 3.1 times higher risk of acquiring infection than females. From phylogenetic analysis, in eastern Thailand, nucleotide sequences of were grouped as a monoclade as those isolated from Greater Mekong, Vietnam, Myanmar, and west Siberia. The results revealed that the surveyed community is a low-grade endemic area of infection. Thus, data from this study can be used to improve health-promoting programs and activities to control the infection and its subsequent CCA.


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  • Received : 22 Nov 2019
  • Accepted : 24 Dec 2019
  • Published online : 10 Feb 2020
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