Volume 102, Issue 4
  • ISSN: 0002-9637
  • E-ISSN: 1476-1645



In tropical areas of developing countries, the interactions among parasitic diseases such as soil-transmitted helminths (STHs) and malaria, and glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase deficiency (G6PDd), are complex. Here, we investigated their interactions and impact on anemia in school students residing in a conflict zone of northeast Myanmar. A cross-sectional survey was conducted between July and December 2015 in two schools located along the China–Myanmar border. Stool samples from the schoolchildren were analyzed for STH infections, whereas finger-prick blood samples were analyzed for G6PDd, hemoglobin concentrations, and infections. Among 988 enrolled children, , , hookworm, , and infections occurred in 3.3%, 0.8%, 31.5%, 1.2%, and 0.3%, respectively. Glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase deficiency was present in 16.9% of the children, and there was a very high prevalence of anemia (73%). Anthropometric measures performed on all children showed that 50% of the children were stunted and 25% wasted. Moderate to severe anemia was associated with STH infections, stunting, and wasting. In addition, children had increasing odds of anemia with increasing burden of infections. This study revealed a high prevalence of G6PDd, STHs, and anemia in schools located in a conflict zone. In areas where malnutrition and STH infections are rampant, testing for both glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase and anemia should be considered before treating vivax malaria with 8-aminoquinolines.


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  • Received : 06 Nov 2019
  • Accepted : 05 Jan 2020
  • Published online : 10 Feb 2020
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