Volume 103, Issue 1
  • ISSN: 0002-9637
  • E-ISSN: 1476-1645



Progress with malaria control in western Kenya has stagnated since 2007. Additional interventions to reduce the high burden of malaria in this region are urgently needed. We conducted a two-arm, community-based, cluster-randomized, controlled trial of active case detection and treatment of malaria infections in all residents mass testing and treatment (MTaT) of 10 village clusters (intervention clusters) for two consecutive years to measure differences in the incidence of clinical malaria disease and malaria infections compared with 20 control clusters where MTaT was not implemented. All residents of intervention clusters, irrespective of history of fever or other malaria-related symptoms, were tested three times per year before the peak malaria season using malaria rapid diagnostic tests. All positive cases were treated with dihydroartemisinin–piperaquine. The incidence of clinical malaria was measured through passive surveillance, whereas the cumulative incidence of malaria infection was measured using active surveillance in a cohort comprising randomly selected residents. The incidence of clinical malaria was 0.19 cases/person-year (p-y, 95% CI: 0.13–0.28) in the intervention arm and 0.24 cases/p-y (95% CI: 0.15–0.39) in the control arm (incidence rate ratio [IRR] 0.79, 95% CI: 0.61–1.02). The cumulative incidence of malaria infections was similar between the intervention (2.08 infections/p-y, 95% CI: 1.93–2.26) and control arms (2.19 infections/p-y, 95% CI: 2.02–2.37) with a crude IRR of 0.95 (95% CI: 0.87–1.04). Six rounds of MTaT over 2 years did not have a significant impact on the incidence of clinical malaria or the cumulative incidence of malaria infection in this area of high malaria transmission.


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  • Received : 03 Oct 2019
  • Accepted : 15 Mar 2020
  • Published online : 27 Apr 2020
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