Volume 102, Issue 2
  • ISSN: 0002-9637
  • E-ISSN: 1476-1645



The genus is a diverse group of globally occurring viruses, including tick-, mosquito-, and sand fly–borne pathogens. Phleboviruses have historically been classified by serological methods. However, molecular methods alone have been used to identify emergent novel and related strains in recent years. This makes reconciling the classification of historically and newly characterized viruses challenging. To address this in part, we describe the characterization of the genomes of the Frijoles and Chilibre species complex phleboviruses, and three unclassified phleboviruses isolated in the Americas: Caimito, Itaporanga, and Rio Grande viruses that had previously only been described at the serological level. With the exception of , the phleboviruses sequenced in this study are phylogenetically related to the current species , , or the Chagres antigenic complex. Unexpectedly, molecular and phylogenetic analysis suggests Chilibre and Caimito viruses are taxonomically related to the family . These viruses have a genomic architecture similar to peribunyaviruses and form monophyletic groups within the genus . Our data highlight the importance of reconciling serological and molecular taxonomic classification. In addition, we suggest the taxonomy of Chilibre and Caimito viruses should be revised.


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  • Received : 27 Sep 2019
  • Accepted : 05 Nov 2019
  • Published online : 02 Dec 2019
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