image of Stool-Based Pathogen Detection Offers Advantages as an Outcome Measure for Water, Sanitation, and Hygiene Trials
  • ISSN: 0002-9637
  • E-ISSN: 1476-1645


Most health impact trials of water, sanitation, and hygiene use caregiver-reported diarrhea in children as the primary outcome; this measure is known to be subject to considerable bias, especially when used in unblinded trials. Detection of enteric pathogens in stool or fecal waste via multiplex molecular methods may offer advantages over—and is complementary to—diarrhea because these measures are objective, on the causal pathway from exposures of interest to disease outcomes, and increasingly feasible in high-burden countries.

[open-access] This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author and source are credited.


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  • Received : 28 Aug 2019
  • Accepted : 24 Sep 2019
  • Published online : 04 Nov 2019
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