1921
Volume 102, Issue 5
  • ISSN: 0002-9637
  • E-ISSN: 1476-1645

Abstract

Abstract.

Zika virus, which is transmitted by mosquitoes and through sexual transmission, disproportionally affects the human fetus. Guatemala experienced a surge of Zika cases beginning in 2016. We conducted a qualitative study of community perceptions of the seriousness of Zika, as well as the effectiveness, feasibility, and collective efficacy of Zika prevention actions. Free listing elicited the preventive actions salient for 68 participants comprising pregnant women, men with a pregnant partner, and women likely to become pregnant; 12 focus group discussions in a highland and a lowland town explored other concepts through rank orderings of prevention practices depicted on cards. Participants’ initial concern about Zika, based on recent experience with chikungunya and high media coverage, diminished because of its mild symptoms and reduced media coverage. Participants identified more than 32 salient preventive actions, many of which are considered effective by programs. Participants ranked water storage container cleaning and regular unspecified cleaning of the house and its surroundings as highly effective, feasible, and of high collective efficacy; however, the actions lacked the specificity needed to effectively destroy mosquito eggs. Community-level removal of tires and discarded containers had lower collective efficacy than household-level implementation because of the municipal and community cooperation needed. Condom use, although salient for Zika prevention, was hindered by gender roles. The findings indicate space for increasing self-efficacy for condom use among fathers-to-be, abandoning nonspecific terms such as “cleaning” and “standing water,” increasing people’s skills in using bleach as an ovicide, and promoting antenatal care and family planning counseling.

[open-access] This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution (CC-BY) License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author and source are credited.

Loading

Article metrics loading...

The graphs shown below represent data from March 2017
/content/journals/10.4269/ajtmh.19-0578
2020-02-24
2020-10-01
Loading full text...

Full text loading...

/deliver/fulltext/14761645/102/5/tpmd190578.html?itemId=/content/journals/10.4269/ajtmh.19-0578&mimeType=html&fmt=ahah

References

  1. Kindhauser MK, Allen T, Frank V, Santhana RS, Dye C, 2016. Zika: the origin and spread of a mosquito-borne virus. Bull World Health Organ 94: 675686.
    [Google Scholar]
  2. Powell JR, Tabachnick WJ, 2013. History of domestication and spread of Aedes aegypti–a review. Mem Inst Oswaldo Cruz 108: 1117.
    [Google Scholar]
  3. Reiter P, 2007. Oviposition, dispersal, and survival in Aedes aegypti: implications for the efficacy of control strategies. Vector Borne Zoonotic Dis 7: 261273.
    [Google Scholar]
  4. de Araújo TVB et al., 2018. Association between microcephaly, Zika virus infection, and other risk factors in Brazil: final report of a case-control study. Lancet Infect Dis 18: 328336.
    [Google Scholar]
  5. Kim CR, Counotte M, Bernstein K, Deal C, Mayaud P, Low N, Broutet N, 2018. Investigating the sexual transmission of Zika virus. Lancet Glob Health 6: e24e25.
    [Google Scholar]
  6. World Health Organization, 2016. Fifth Meeting of the Emergency Committee under the International Health Regulations (2005) Regarding Microcephaly, Other Neurological Disorders and Zika virus. Available at: https://www.who.int/news-room/detail/18-11-2016-fifth-meeting-of-the-emergency-committee-under-the-international-health-regulations-(2005)-regarding-microcephaly-other-neurological-disorders-and-zika-virus. Accessed July 18, 2019.
    [Google Scholar]
  7. Pan American Health Organization/World Health Organization, 2017. Zika–Epidemiological Report Guatemala. Available at: https://www.paho.org/hq/dmdocuments/2017/2017-phe-zika-situation-report-gut.pdf. Accessed July 18, 2019.
    [Google Scholar]
  8. Pan American Health Organization/World Health Organization, 2017. Zika Suspected and Confirmed Cases Reported by Countries and Territories in the Americas, Cumulative Cases 2015–2017. Updated as of 04 January, 2018. Available at: https://www.paho.org/hq/dmdocuments/2017/2017-dec-21-phe-ZIKV-cases.pdf. Accessed December 20, 2019.
    [Google Scholar]
  9. Breakthrough Action, 2018. Zika Prevention Behavior Matrix. Available at: https://www.zikacommunicationnetwork.org/sites/default/files/resource_files/Zika-Prevention-Behavior-Matrix-14JUN2018.pdf. Accessed July 18, 2019.
    [Google Scholar]
  10. Merritt AP, Hunter G, Ballard A, Parikh P, Skinner J, Slesinski C, 2016. Strategic Communication Framework for Zika Prevention: A Framework for Local Adaptation. Available at: https://healthcommcapacity.org/wp-content/uploads/2017/03/Strategic-Communication-Framework-for-Zika-Prevention_April-2017.pdf. Accessed July 18, 2019.
    [Google Scholar]
  11. Moise IK, Kangmennaang J, Hutchings T, Sheskin IM, Fuller DO, 2018. Perceptions of Zika virus risk during 2016 outbreak, Miami-Dade County, Florida, USA. Emerg Infect Dis 24: 13791381.
    [Google Scholar]
  12. Squiers L, Herrington J, Kelly B, Bann C, Becker-Dreps S, Stamm L, Johnson M, McCormack L, 2018. Zika virus prevention: U.S. travelers’ knowledge, risk perceptions, and behavioral intentions-a national survey. Am J Trop Med Hyg 98: 18371847.
    [Google Scholar]
  13. Guerra-Reyes L, Fu TJ, Williams D, Herbenick D, Dodge B, Reece M, Fortenberry JD, 2018. Knowledge of Zika and perception of risk among sexually-active adults in the United States of America: results from a nationally representative sample. Rev Panam Salud Publica 42: e43.
    [Google Scholar]
  14. Posada M, Law E, Braithwaite C, Martes P, 2017. Emerging Epidemics and Risk Perception: New Evidence from Latin America and the Caribbean. Available at: https://www.zikacommunicationnetwork.org/sites/default/files/resource_files/EmergingEpidemicsRiskPerceptionZika.pdf. Accessed July 18, 2019.
    [Google Scholar]
  15. Nelson EJ, Luetke MC, Kianersi S, Willis E, Rosenberg M, 2019. Knowledge and perceptions of Zika virus transmission in the community of Puerto Plata, Dominican Republic. BMC Infect Dis 19: 339.
    [Google Scholar]
  16. Miranda E, Santos-Pinto C, Antunes-de-Lima C, Osorio-de-Castro C, 2019. Risk perception of Zika virus infection among vulnerable women in Rio de Janeiro. Prehosp Disaster Med 34: S36S37.
    [Google Scholar]
  17. Foley I, Ryan M, Modi S, Bearman G, Stevens MP, 2018. Perceptions and risk factors for Zika virus infection at two sites in the Dominican Republic. Int J Infect Dis 73: 223.
    [Google Scholar]
  18. Reyes-Medina YN et al., 2018. A cross-sectional survey of the Zika virus and its prevention: the knowledge, thoughts, and beliefs of a community of residents in Caguas, Puerto Rico. P R Health Sci J 37: S57S65.
    [Google Scholar]
  19. Weldon CT, Riley-Powell AR, Aguerre IM, Celis Nacimento RA, Morrison AC, Oberhelman RA, Paz-Soldan VA, 2018. “Zika is everywhere”: a qualitative exploration of knowledge, attitudes and practices towards Zika virus among women of reproductive age in Iquitos, Peru. PLoS Negl Trop Dis 12: e0006708.
    [Google Scholar]
  20. Cho H, Witte K, 2005. Managing fear in public health campaigns: a theory-based formative evaluation process. Health Promot Pract 6: 482490.
    [Google Scholar]
  21. Bandura A, 2001. Social cognitive theory: an agentic perspective. Annu Rev Psychol 52: 126.
    [Google Scholar]
  22. McLeroy KR, Bibeau D, Steckler A, Glanz K, 1988. An ecological perspective on health promotion programs. Health Educ Q 15: 351377.
    [Google Scholar]
  23. Cialdini RB, Reno RR, Kallgren CA, 1990. A focus theory of normative conduct: recycling the concept of norms to reduce littering in public places. J Pers Soc Psychol 58: 10151026.
    [Google Scholar]
  24. Bandura A, 2000. Exercise of human agency through collective efficacy. Curr Dir Psychol Sci 9: 7578.
    [Google Scholar]
  25. Smith JJ, 1993. Using ANTHROPAC 3.5 and a spreadsheet to compute a freelist salience index. CAM Newsl (Cult Anthropol Methods) 5: 13.
    [Google Scholar]
  26. Sherman C, Fernandez EA, Chan AS, Lozano RC, Leontsini E, Winch PJ, 1998. La untadita: a procedure for maintaining washbasins and drums free of Aedes aegypti based on modification of existing practices. Am J Trop Med Hyg 58: 257262.
    [Google Scholar]
  27. Weller SC, Vickers B, Bernard HR, Blackburn AM, Borgatti S, Gravlee CC, Johnson JC, 2018. Open-ended interview questions and saturation. PLoS One 13: e0198606.
    [Google Scholar]
  28. Malterud K, Siersma VD, Guassora AD, 2016. Sample size in qualitative interview studies: guided by information power. Qual Health Res 26: 17531760.
    [Google Scholar]
  29. Winch P, Leontsini E, Lloyd L, 2008. Mosquito control: behavioral and community interventions. Halstead SB, ed. Dengue. London, United Kingdom: Imperial College Press, 407.
    [Google Scholar]
  30. Nichter M, 2008. Global Health: Why Cultural Perceptions, Social Representations, and Biopolitics Matter. Tucson, AZ: University of Arizona Press.
    [Google Scholar]
  31. Albaine Pons JR, Gonzalves G, Solís A, de los Santos J, 2002. Efecto ovicida del cloro casero puro (Hopoclorito de sodio al 5.25 por ciento) sobre huevos del mosquito transmisor del dengue Aedes Aegypti (insecta: diptera) en condiciones de laboratorio. Cienc Soc 27: 7391.
    [Google Scholar]
  32. Fernandez E, Leontsini E, Sherman C, Chan A, Reyes C, Lozano R, Fuentes B, Nichter M, Winch PJ, 1998. Trial of a community-based intervention to decrease infestation of Aedes aegypti mosquitoes in cement washbasins in El Progreso, Honduras. Acta Trop 70: 171183.
    [Google Scholar]
  33. Leontsini E, Rosenbaum J, Baéz C, Solís A, Valera C, Gonzálvez G, 2004. Negociación de prácticas mejoradas–NEPRAM (negotiation of improved practices): the development of a national behaviour change strategy for community-based prevention of dengue fever in the Dominican Republic. Dengue Bull 28: 2225.
    [Google Scholar]
  34. Carter MW, 2002. “Because he loves me”: husbands’ involvement in maternal health in Guatemala. Cult Health Sex 4: 259279.
    [Google Scholar]
  35. Gao D, Lou Y, He D, Porco TC, Kuang Y, Chowell G, Ruan S, 2016. Prevention and control of Zika as a mosquito-borne and sexually transmitted disease: a mathematical modeling analysis. Sci Rep 6: 28070.
    [Google Scholar]
  36. Towers S, Brauer F, Castillo-Chavez C, Falconar AKI, Mubayi A, Romero-Vivas CME, 2016. Estimate of the reproduction number of the 2015 Zika virus outbreak in Barranquilla, Colombia, and estimation of the relative role of sexual transmission. J Epidem 17: 5055.
    [Google Scholar]
  37. Counotte MJ, Kim CR, Wang J, Bernstein K, Deal CD, Broutet NJN, Low N, 2018. Sexual transmission of Zika virus and other flaviviruses: a living systematic review. PLoS Med 15: e1002611.
    [Google Scholar]
  38. McNaughton D, Miller E, Tsourtos G, 2018. The importance of water typologies in lay entomologies of Aedes aegypti habitat, breeding and dengue risk: a study from Northern Australia. Trop Med Inf Dis 3: e67.
    [Google Scholar]
http://instance.metastore.ingenta.com/content/journals/10.4269/ajtmh.19-0578
Loading
/content/journals/10.4269/ajtmh.19-0578
Loading

Data & Media loading...

Supplemental table

  • Received : 02 Aug 2019
  • Accepted : 16 Jan 2020
  • Published online : 24 Feb 2020
This is a required field
Please enter a valid email address
Approval was a Success
Invalid data
An Error Occurred
Approval was partially successful, following selected items could not be processed due to error