Volume 102, Issue 6
  • ISSN: 0002-9637
  • E-ISSN: 1476-1645



Environmental factors, including high temperature and humidity, can influence dermal absorption of chemicals. Soldiers can be dermally exposed to permethrin while wearing permethrin-treated uniforms. This study aimed at examining the effects of high temperature and a combined high temperature and humid environment on permethrin absorption compared with ambient conditions when wearing a permethrin-treated uniform. Twenty-seven male enlisted soldiers wore study-issued permethrin-treated army uniforms for 33 consecutive hours in three different environments: 1) simulated high temperature (35°C, 40% relative humidity [rh]) ( = 10), 2) simulated high temperature and humidity (30°C, 70% rh) ( = 10), and 3) ambient conditions (13°C, 60% rh) ( = 7). Spot urine samples, collected at 21 scheduled time points before, during, and after wearing the study uniforms, were analyzed for permethrin exposure biomarkers (3-phenoxybenzoic acid, - and -3-(2,2-dichlorovinyl)-2,2-dimethylcyclopropane-1-carboxylic acid) and creatinine. Biomarker concentrations were 60–90% higher in the heat and combined heat/humidity groups ( < 0.001–0.022) than the ambient group. Also, the average daily permethrin dose, calculated 12 hours after removing the treated uniforms, was significantly higher in the heat ( = 0.01) and the heat/humidity ( = 0.03) groups than the ambient group. There were no significant differences in biomarker concentrations or computed average daily dose between the heat and the heat/humidity groups. Both hot and combined hot and humid environmental conditions significantly increased permethrin absorption in soldiers wearing permethrin-treated uniforms.


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  • Received : 22 Jul 2019
  • Accepted : 22 Feb 2020
  • Published online : 30 Mar 2020
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