1921
Volume 103, Issue 3
  • ISSN: 0002-9637
  • E-ISSN: 1476-1645

Abstract

Abstract.

A cluster-randomized clinical trial showed that biannual single-dose azithromycin reduced mortality in preschool children; we sought to determine the effect on anemia. A simple random sample of 30 communities from Kilosa district, Tanzania, were themselves randomized to receive either 6-monthly treatment of children aged 1–59 months with single-dose azithromycin or placebo. From each community, 40 preschool children were randomly selected at baseline, 12 months, and 24 months. At surveys, the children underwent hemoglobin testing; WHO definitions for anemia were applied. After adjusting for community clustering, the prevalence of anemia was not significantly different by treatment assignment at baseline, 12 months, and 24 months. In each of the cross-sectional surveys, anemia prevalence was associated with younger age; the odds of being anemic was highest in those aged < 12 months. There was also a general decrease in the prevalence of anemia during the study. Although azithromycin was not shown to affect anemia, significantly, the study highlights burden of anemia in rural, African communities.

[open-access] This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution (CC-BY) License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author and source are credited.

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  • Received : 02 Jul 2019
  • Accepted : 16 Dec 2019
  • Published online : 17 Feb 2020
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