Volume 102, Issue 1
  • ISSN: 0002-9637
  • E-ISSN: 1476-1645



All cases have declined over the last decade in northwestern Thailand along the Myanmar border. During this time, has replaced as the dominant species. The decline in has been shadowed by a coincidental but delayed decline in cases. This may be due to early detection and artemisinin-based therapy, species-specific diagnostics, and bed net usage all of which reduce malaria transmission but not relapse. In the absence of widespread primaquine use for radical cure against hypnozoites, the decline in may be explained by decreased hypnozoite activation of relapses triggered by . The observed trends in this region suggest a beneficial effect of decreased transmission on incidence, but elimination of in a timely manner likely requires radical cure.

[open-access] This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution (CC-BY) License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author and source are credited.


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  • Received : 02 Jul 2019
  • Accepted : 04 Oct 2019
  • Published online : 18 Nov 2019

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