Volume 101, Issue 6
  • ISSN: 0002-9637
  • E-ISSN: 1476-1645



Poliovirus (PV) environmental surveillance was established in Haiti in three sites each in Port-au-Prince and Gonaïves, where sewage and fecal-influenced environmental open water channel samples were collected monthly from March 2016 to February 2017. The primary objective was to monitor for the emergence of vaccine-derived polioviruses (VDPVs) and the importation and transmission of wild polioviruses (WPVs). A secondary objective was to compare two environmental sample processing methods, the gold standard two-phase separation method and a filter method (bag-mediated filtration system [BMFS]). In addition, non-polio enteroviruses (NPEVs) were characterized by next-generation sequencing using Illumina MiSeq to provide insight on surrogates for PVs. No WPVs or VDPVs were detected at any site with either concentration method. Sabin (vaccine) strain PV type 2 and Sabin strain PV type 1 were found in Port-au-Prince, in March and April samples, respectively. Non-polio enteroviruses were isolated in 75–100% and 0–58% of samples, by either processing method during the reporting period in Port-au-Prince and Gonaïves, respectively. Further analysis of 24 paired Port-au-Prince samples confirmed the detection of a human NPEV and echovirus types E-3, E-6, E-7, E-11, E-19, E-20, and E-29. The comparison of the BMFS filtration method to the two-phase separation method found no significant difference in sensitivity between the two methods (mid--value = 0.55). The experience of one calendar year of sampling has informed the appropriateness of the initially chosen sampling sites, importance of an adequate PV surrogate, and robustness of two processing methods.


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  • Received : 20 Jun 2019
  • Accepted : 07 Aug 2019
  • Published online : 04 Nov 2019
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