1921
Volume 103, Issue 3
  • ISSN: 0002-9637
  • E-ISSN: 1476-1645

Abstract

Abstract.

Mosquito-borne flaviviruses are emerging pathogens of an increasing global public health concern because of their rapid increase in geographical range and the impact of climate change. Japanese encephalitis virus (JEV) and West Nile virus (WNV) are of concern because of the risk of reemergence and introduction by migratory birds. In Singapore, human WNV infection has never been reported and human JEV infection is rare. Four sentinel vector surveillance sites were established in Singapore to understand the potential risk posed by these viruses. Surveillance was carried out from August 2011 to December 2012 at Pulau Ubin, from March 2011 to March 2013 at an Avian Sanctuary (AS), from December 2010 from October 2012 at Murai Farmway, and from December 2010 to December 2013 at a nature reserve. The present study revealed active JEV transmission in Singapore through the detection of JEV genotype II in collected from an Avian Sanctuary. flavivirus (CxFV), similar to the Quang Binh virus isolated from in Vietnam and CxFV-LSFlaviV-A20-09 virus isolated in China, was also detected in spp. ( subgroup) No WNV was detected. This study demonstrates the important role that surveillance plays in public health and strongly suggests the circulation of JEV among wildlife in Singapore, despite the absence of reported human cases. A One Health approach involving surveillance, the collaboration between public health and wildlife managers, and control of mosquito populations remains the key measures in risk mitigation of JEV transmission in the enzootic cycle between birds and mosquitoes.

[open-access] This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution (CC-BY) License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author and source are credited.

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  • Received : 14 May 2019
  • Accepted : 19 Jun 2020
  • Published online : 20 Jul 2020
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