Volume 101, Issue 5
  • ISSN: 0002-9637
  • E-ISSN: 1476-1645



Human African trypanosomiasis (HAT) also known as sleeping sickness is targeted for elimination as a public health problem by 2020 and elimination of infection by 2030. Although the number of reported cases is decreasing globally, integration of HAT control activities into primary healthcare services is endorsed to expand surveillance and control. However, this integration process faces several challenges in the field. This literature review analyzes what is known about integrated HAT control to guide the integration process in an era of HAT elimination. We carried out a scoping review by searching PubMed and Google Scholar data bases as well as gray literature documents resulting in 25 documents included for analysis. The main reasons in favor to integrate HAT control were related to coverage, cost, quality of service, or sustainability. There were three categories of factors influencing the integration process: 1) the clinical evolution of HAT, 2) the organization of health services, and 3) the diagnostic and therapeutic tools. There is a consensus that both active and passive approaches to HAT case detection and surveillance need to be combined, in a context-sensitive way. However, apart from some documentation about the constraints faced by local health services, there is little evidence on how this synergy is best achieved.

[open-access] This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author and source are credited.


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  • Received : 26 Mar 2019
  • Accepted : 11 Jul 2019
  • Published online : 03 Sep 2019

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