Volume 102, Issue 2
  • ISSN: 0002-9637
  • E-ISSN: 1476-1645



RNA virus 1-1 (LRV-1-1) is a dsRNA virus identified in isolates of () and thought to advance localized cutaneous leishmaniasis (LCL) to mucocutaneous or mucosal leishmaniasis (MCL/ML). We examined the prevalence of LRV-1 and its correlation to phenotypes of American tegumentary leishmaniasis caused by . () from Peru to better understand its epidemiology. Clinical isolates of . () were screened for LRV-1 by real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and stratified according to the phenotype: LCL (< 4 ulcers in number) MCL/ML; inflammatory ulcers (erythematous, purulent, painful ulcers with or without lymphatic involvement) or multifocal ulcers (≥ 4 in ≥ 2 anatomic sites). Proportionate LRV-1 positivity was compared across phenotypes. Of 78 . () isolates, 26 (54.2%) had an inflammatory phenotype, 22 (28%) had the MCL/ML phenotype, whereas 30 (38.5%) had LCL. Mucocutaneous or mucosal leishmaniasis was found exclusively in adult male enrollees. RNA virus 1 positivity by phenotype was as follows: 9/22 (41%) with MCL/ML; 5/26 (19%) with an inflammatory/multifocal cutaneous leishmaniasis phenotype; and 7/30 (23%) with LCL ( = 0.19). RNA virus 1 positivity was not associated with age ( = 0.55) or gender ( = 0.49). Relative LRV-1 copy number was greater in those with MCL/ML than those with inflammatory/multifocal CL ( = 0.02). A direct association between LRV-1 status and clinical phenotype was not demonstrated; however, relative LRV-1 copy number was highest in those with MCL/ML. Future analyses to understand the relationship between viral burden and pathogenesis are required to determine if LRV-1 is truly a contributor to the MCL/ML phenotype.


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  • Received : 18 Feb 2019
  • Accepted : 05 Nov 2019
  • Published online : 12 Dec 2019

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