Volume 101, Issue 5
  • ISSN: 0002-9637
  • E-ISSN: 1476-1645



Although Ethiopia has an overall lower prevalence of among countries in Africa, the emergence of drug resistance could seriously hinder elimination efforts. Using samples collected from five therapeutic efficacy studies conducted in 2007–11, we evaluated the prevalence of putative drug resistance mutations in the , , and genes at the time of those studies, as well as the gene for genetic relatedness using a pooled amplicon deep sequencing approach. Among all sites, the gene showed no mutations, whereas the CVIET genotype was fixed in all populations. By contrast, the gene demonstrated frequencies of resistant genotypes ranging from 10 to 100% at amino acid position 86 and from 0% to 57.8% at amino acid position 1246. Although we observed a low degree of haplotype sharing between sites, we did observe considerable haplotype sharing within sites over time. This suggests that populations in Ethiopia are isolated and able to persist through time.


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  • Received : 15 Feb 2019
  • Accepted : 19 Jul 2019
  • Published online : 16 Sep 2019

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