Volume 101, Issue 5
  • ISSN: 0002-9637
  • E-ISSN: 1476-1645



This follow-up cross-sectional study aimed to analyze the prevalence rate and risk factors related to latent tuberculosis infection (LTBI) and active tuberculosis (TB) in children aged < 15 years in contact with adults with smear-positive pulmonary TB (PTB) in a Brazilian municipality. Data were collected from interviews, clinical evaluations, chest X-rays, tuberculin skin tests, and interferon gamma release assays. The median time elapsed between diagnosis of the index case (IC) and inclusion in the study was 2.5 years (interquartile range [IQR] = 1.5–4.4) and 7.4 years (IQR = 3.8–9.7) when we reassessed the development (or not) of active TB. The median age at the time of exposure to the IC was 6.6 years (IQR = 3.3–9.4) and 14.1 years (IQR = 8.9–17.7) at the last follow-up. Of the 99 children and adolescents in contact with smear-positive PTB, 21.2% (95% CI = 14.0–29.9) were diagnosed with LTBI, and none developed active TB. There was no statistically significant difference between the LTBI and non-LTBI groups regarding demographic, socioeconomic, and epidemiological characteristics. Unlike national and international scenarios, we found a lower frequency of LTBI and no active TB among our studied patients. For better understanding of these findings, further studies might add, among other factors, host and genetic features.


Article metrics loading...

The graphs shown below represent data from March 2017
Loading full text...

Full text loading...


Data & Media loading...

  • Received : 01 Feb 2019
  • Accepted : 16 Jun 2019
  • Published online : 03 Sep 2019

Most Cited This Month

This is a required field
Please enter a valid email address
Approval was a Success
Invalid data
An Error Occurred
Approval was partially successful, following selected items could not be processed due to error