Volume 102, Issue 1
  • ISSN: 0002-9637
  • E-ISSN: 1476-1645



Dengue is a climate-sensitive disease with an increasing global burden. Although the relationship between meteorological conditions and dengue incidence is well established, less is known about the modifying nature of sociodemographic variables on that relationship. We assess the strength and direction of sociodemographic effect modification of the temperature–dengue relationship in the second largest city of the Peruvian Amazon to identify populations that may have heightened vulnerability to dengue under varying climate conditions. We used weekly dengue counts and averaged meteorological variables to evaluate the association between disease incidence, meteorological exposures, and sociodemographic effect modifiers (gender, age, and district) in negative binomial regression models. District was included to consider geographical effect modification. We found that being a young child or elderly, being female, and living in the district of Manantay increased dengue’s incidence rate ratio (IRR) as a result of 1°C increase in weekly mean temperature (IRR = 2.99, 95% CI: 1.99–4.50 for women less than 5 years old and IRR = 2.86, 95% CI: = 1.93–4.22 for women older than 65 years, both estimates valid for the rainy season). The effect of temperature on dengue depended on season, with stronger effects during rainy seasons. Sociodemographic variables can provide options for intervention to mitigate health impacts with a changing climate. Our results indicate that patterns of baseline risk between regions and sociodemographic conditions can differ substantially from trends in climate sensitivity. These results challenge the assumption that the distribution of climate change impacts will be patterned similarly to existing social gradients in health.


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Supplemental tables

  • Received : 11 Jan 2019
  • Accepted : 25 Jun 2019
  • Published online : 04 Nov 2019
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