1921
Volume 101 Number 4_Suppl
  • ISSN: 0002-9637
  • E-ISSN: 1476-1645

Abstract

Abstract.

Seventy-five percent of children aged 12–23 months in Malawi have received all eight basic vaccinations—still leaving many children at risk. The Malawi Expanded Program on Immunization comprehensive Multi-Year Plan 2016–2020 reveals several challenges impeding immunization and disease surveillance efforts, such as the fact that non-governmental health organizations (NGHOs) and communities are minimally included in the planning, implementation, and monitoring of these activities. This article examines the extent to which NGHOs are promoting the use of social mobilization (SM) and community mobilizers (CMs) for sharing health information related to the eradication of polio, the importance of routine immunization, and the control of measles and neonatal tetanus. Data collection involved document analysis and interviews with 11 organizations in Malawi whose work contributes to the eradication of polio and control of measles and neonatal tetanus. Content analysis was used to analyze the qualitative data, whereas descriptive statistics were used to analyze the quantitative data. Non-governmental health organizations use a variety of approaches for SM, including mass media campaigns (radio and printed booklets), local skits and dramas, and home visits. Most NGHOs use training workshops and opinion leaders to impart knowledge and skills to CMs on immunization to eradicate polio and to control measles and neonatal tetanus. Major challenges faced by the NGHOs include negative attitudes toward campaigns and demotivation of CMs due to lack of financial incentives. The article concludes with a discussion of approaches to strengthen SM and the role of CMs by NGHOs.

[open-access] This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author and source are credited.

Loading

Article metrics loading...

The graphs shown below represent data from March 2017
/content/journals/10.4269/ajtmh.19-0021
2019-10-03
2019-11-20
Loading full text...

Full text loading...

/deliver/fulltext/14761645/101/4_Suppl/tpmd190021.html?itemId=/content/journals/10.4269/ajtmh.19-0021&mimeType=html&fmt=ahah

References

  1. USAID, The ACCESS Program, 2007. Demystifying Community Mobilization: An Effective Strategy to Improve Maternal and Newborn Health. Available at: http://www.sbccimplementationkits.org/demandrmnch//wp-content/uploads/2014/02/Demystifying-Community-Mobilization-An-Effective-Strategy-to-Improve-Maternal-and-Newborn-Health.pdf. Accessed April 26, 2019. [Google Scholar]
  2. Messeret E, Masresha B, Yakubu A, Daniel F, Mihigo R, Nshimirimana D, Okeibunor J, Akanmori B, , 2018. Maternal neonatal tetanus elimination (MNTE) in the WHO African region. J Immunological Sci (Suppl 15): 103107. [Google Scholar]
  3. Shibeshi M, Masresha B, Yakubu A, Daniel F, Shivute N, Mihigo R, Nshimirimana D, , 2015. Progress towards the elimination of maternal and neonatal tetanus. Afr Health Monitor 2526. [Google Scholar]
  4. Mihigo R, Anya B, Okeibunor J, Poy A, Machingaidzei S, Wiysongei CS, Husseyi GD, Nshimirimana D, , 2015. Routine immunization in the WHO African region: progress, challenges and way forward. African Health Monitor: Special Issue on Immunization in the African Region 19: 14. [Google Scholar]
  5. Murphy E, , 2012. Social Mobilization Lessons from the CORE Group Polio Project in Angola, Ethiopia, and India. Available at: https://coregroup.org/wp-content/uploads/media-backup/Polio_Initiative/smreport-online.pdf. Accessed April 26, 2019. [Google Scholar]
  6. Losey L, 2019. The CORE Group Polio Project: an overview of its history and its contributions to the global polio eradication initiative. Am J Trop Med 101 (Suppl 4): 414. [Google Scholar]
  7. Obregon R, Waisbord S, , 2010. The complexity of social mobilization in health communication: top-down and bottom-up experiences in polio eradication. J Health Commun 15 (Suppl 1): 2547. [Google Scholar]
  8. Malawi National Statistical Office, ICF, 2017. Malawi Demographic and Health Survey 2015–2016. Available at: https://www.dhsprogram.com/pubs/phdf/FR319/FR319.pdf. Accessed April 26, 2019. [Google Scholar]
  9. Chirwa G, , 2016. Closing MR Immunity gaps: Experienes from the Regions of Malawi. Available at: https://www.sabin.org/sites/sabin.org/files/malawi.pdf. Accessed April 26, 2019. [Google Scholar]
  10. Government of Malawi, 2015. EPI Comprehensive EPI Multi-Year Plan 2016–2020. Lilongwe, Malawi: Government of Malawi. [Google Scholar]
  11. Tsega A, Hausi H, Chirwa C, Steinglass R, Smith D, Valle M, , 2016. Vaccination coverage and timely vaccination with valid doses in Malawi. Vaccin Rep 6: 812. [Google Scholar]
  12. USAID/Africa Bureau, USAID/Population and Reproductive Health, Ethiopia Federal Ministry of Health, Malawi Ministry of Health, Rwanda Ministry of Health, 2012. Three Successful Sub-Saharan Africa Family Planning Programs: Lessons for Meeting the MDGs. Available at: https://www.fhi360.org/sites/default/files/media/documents/africa-burheau-case-study-report.pdf. Accessed April 26, 2019. [Google Scholar]
  13. Johnson B, Christensen LB, , 2010. Educational Research: Quantitative, Qualitative, and Mixed Approaches. Los Angeles, CA: SAGE Publication. [Google Scholar]
  14. Rocco TS, Bliss LA, Gallagher S, Perez-Prado A, , 2003. Taking the next step: mixed methods research in organizational systems research. Inf Technol Learn Perform J 21: 1929. [Google Scholar]
  15. Woods M, , 2011. Interviewing for Research and Analysing Qualitative Data: an Overview “The Interview Method is a Conversation with a Purpose”. Available at: http://owll.massey.ac.nz/pdf/interviewing-for-research.pdf. Accessed April 26, 2019. [Google Scholar]
  16. Sale JM, Lohfeld L, Brazil K, , 2002. Revisiting the quantitative-qualitative debate: implications for mixed-methods research. Qual Quantity 36: 4353. [Google Scholar]
  17. Seymour J, , 2012. Combined qualitative and quantitative research designs. Curr Opin Support Palliat Care 6: 514524. [Google Scholar]
  18. CGPP, 2016. CGPP Annual Report 2015–2016. Wasshington, DC: CORE Group Polio Project. [Google Scholar]
  19. UNICEF/Malawi, 2017. Malawi Annual Report 2016. Available at: https://www.unicef.org/malawi/reports/unicef-malawi-2017-annual-report. Accessed April 26, 2019. [Google Scholar]
  20. Perry H, Morrow M, Borger S, Weiss J, DeCoster M, Davis T, Ernst P, , 2015. Care groups I: an innovative community-based strategy for improving maternal, neonatal, and child health in resource-constrained settings. Glob Health Sci Pract 3: 358369. [Google Scholar]
  21. Perry H, Morrow M, Davis T, Borger S, Weiss J, DeCoster M, Ricca J, Ernst P, , 2015. Care groups II: a summary of the maternal, neonatal and child health outcomes achieved in high-mortality, resource-constrained settings. Glob Health Sci Pract 3: 370381. [Google Scholar]
  22. MCSP, 2017. Malawi Country Summary. Available at: https://www.mcsprogram.org/wp-content/uploads/2017/04/Malawi-Country-Summary-March-2017-1.pdf. Accessed April 26, 2019. [Google Scholar]
  23. Solomon R, , 2019. Involvement of civil society in India’s polio eradication program: lessons learned. Am J Trop Med Hyg 101 (Suppl 4): 1520. [Google Scholar]
  24. Awale J, Choudhary M, Solomon R, Chaturvedi A, , 2019. Effective partnership mechanisms: a legacy of the polio eradication initiative in India and their potential for addressing other public health priorities. Am J Trop Med Hyg 101 (Suppl 4): 2132. [Google Scholar]
  25. Choudhary M, Perry H, Solomon R, , 2019. Effectiveness of a census-based management information system for guiding polio eradication and routine immunization activities: evidence from the CORE Group Polio Project in Uttar Pradesh, India. Am J Trop Med Hyg 101 (Suppl 4): 3344. [Google Scholar]
  26. Asegedew B, Tessema F, Perry H, Bisrat F, , 2019. The CORE Group Polio Project’s community volunteers and polio eradication in Ethiopia: self-reports of their activities, knowledge, and contributions. Am J Trop Med Hyg 101 (Suppl 4): 4551. [Google Scholar]
  27. Okiror SO, Bisrat F, Lutukai M, Bhui BR, , 2015. Community-Based Surveillance on Polio Eradication in the Horn of Africa. Available at: http://www.sdgfund.org/special-issue-immunization-african-region. Accessed April 26, 2019. [Google Scholar]
  28. World Vision Malawi, 2018. Our Work: Health. Available at: https://www.wvi.org/malawi/our-work-0. Accessed April 26, 2019. [Google Scholar]
  29. Weiss WM, Choudhary M, Solomon R, , 2013. Performance and determinants of routine immunization coverage within the context of intensive polio eradication activities in Uttar Pradesh, India: Social Mobilization Network (SM Net) and CORE Group Polio Project (CGPP). BMC Int Health Hum Rights 13: 25. [Google Scholar]
  30. Curry DW, Bisrat F, Coates E, Altman P, , 2013. Reaching beyond the health post: community-based surveillance for polio eradication. Dev Pract 23: 6978. [Google Scholar]
http://instance.metastore.ingenta.com/content/journals/10.4269/ajtmh.19-0021
Loading
  • Received : 08 Jan 2019
  • Accepted : 13 Jun 2019
  • Published online : 03 Oct 2019

Most Cited This Month

This is a required field
Please enter a valid email address
Approval was a Success
Invalid data
An Error Occurred
Approval was partially successful, following selected items could not be processed due to error