1921
Volume 102, Issue 3
  • ISSN: 0002-9637
  • E-ISSN: 1476-1645

Abstract

Abstract.

Domestic animals have been associated with enteric infections in young children and can also be carriers of respiratory viruses. We conducted a cross-sectional assessment of health outcomes in children aged < 5 years associated with animal presence among 793 rural households in Uganda. We recorded the 2-week prevalence of diarrhea and respiratory infections in children, and the number of cows, poultry, sheep/goats, and pigs in the household. We used generalized linear models with robust standard errors to estimate the prevalence ratio (PR) for diarrhea and respiratory infections associated with households owning the above- versus below-median number of animals. We conducted unadjusted and adjusted analyses controlling for socioeconomic, water, sanitation, and hygiene indicators. Children in households with the above-median number (> 5) of poultry had 83% higher diarrhea prevalence than those with ≤ 5 poultry (adjusted PR = 1.83 [1.04, 3.23], = 0.04). Children in households with the above-median number (> 2) of cows had 48% lower prevalence of respiratory infection than those with ≤ 2 cows (adjusted PR = 0.52 [0.35, 0.76], < 0.005). There were no other significant associations between domestic animals and child health. Studies should assess if barring chickens from indoor living quarters and sanitary disposal of chicken and other animal feces can reduce childhood zoonotic infections.

[open-access] This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution (CC-BY) License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author and source are credited.

Loading

Article metrics loading...

The graphs shown below represent data from March 2017
/content/journals/10.4269/ajtmh.19-0012
2020-01-20
2020-04-09
Loading full text...

Full text loading...

/deliver/fulltext/14761645/102/3/tpmd190012.html?itemId=/content/journals/10.4269/ajtmh.19-0012&mimeType=html&fmt=ahah

References

  1. Delahoy MJ, Wodnik B, McAliley L, Penakalapati G, Swarthout J, Freeman MC, Levy K, 2018. Pathogens transmitted in animal feces in low- and middle-income countries. Int J Hyg Environ Health 221: 661676.
    [Google Scholar]
  2. Schriewer A, Odagiri M, Wuertz S, Misra PR, Panigrahi P, Clasen T, Jenkins MW, 2015. Human and animal fecal contamination of community water sources, stored drinking water and hands in rural India measured with validated microbial source tracking assays. Am J Trop Med Hyg 93: 509516.
    [Google Scholar]
  3. Harris AR, Pickering AJ, Harris M, Doza S, Islam MS, Unicomb L, Luby S, Davis J, Boehm AB, 2016. Ruminants contribute fecal contamination to the urban household environment in Dhaka, Bangladesh. Environ Sci Technol 50: 46424649.
    [Google Scholar]
  4. Boehm AB et al., 2016. Occurrence of host-associated fecal markers on child hands, household soil, and drinking water in rural Bangladeshi households. Environ Sci Technol Lett 3: 393398.
    [Google Scholar]
  5. Odagiri M et al., 2016. Human fecal and pathogen exposure pathways in rural Indian villages and the effect of increased latrine coverage. Water Res 100: 232244.
    [Google Scholar]
  6. Kotloff KL et al., 2013. Burden and aetiology of diarrhoeal disease in infants and young children in developing countries (the global enteric multicenter study, GEMS): a prospective, case-control study. Lancet 382: 209222.
    [Google Scholar]
  7. Liu J et al., 2016. Use of quantitative molecular diagnostic methods to identify causes of diarrhoea in children: a reanalysis of the GEMS case-control study. Lancet 388: 12911301.
    [Google Scholar]
  8. Kaur M, Graham JP, Eisenberg JNS, 2017. Livestock ownership among rural households and child morbidity and mortality: an analysis of demographic health survey data from 30 sub-saharan african countries (2005–2015). Am J Trop Med Hyg 96: 741748.
    [Google Scholar]
  9. Soller JA, Schoen ME, Bartrand T, Ravenscroft JE, Ashbolt NJ, 2010. Estimated human health risks from exposure to recreational waters impacted by human and non-human sources of faecal contamination. Water Res 44: 46744691.
    [Google Scholar]
  10. Sobsey MD, Khatib LA, Hill VR, Alocilja E, Pillai S, 2001. Pathogens in animal wastes and the impacts of waste management practices on their survival, transport and fate. White Papers on Animal Agriculture and the Environment. Ames, IA: MidWest Plan Service (MWPS), Iowa State University.
    [Google Scholar]
  11. Fey PD, Safranek TJ, Rupp ME, Dunne EF, Ribot E, Iwen PC, Bradford PA, Angulo FJ, Hinrichs SH, 2000. Ceftriaxone-resistant Salmonella infection acquired by a child from cattle. N Engl J Med 342: 12421249.
    [Google Scholar]
  12. Stanley K, Jones K, 2003. Cattle and sheep farms as reservoirs of Campylobacter. J Appl Microbiol 94: 104113.
    [Google Scholar]
  13. Zambrano LD, Levy K, Menezes NP, Freeman MC, 2014. Human diarrhea infections associated with domestic animal husbandry: a systematic review and meta-analysis. Trans R Soc Trop Med Hyg 108: 313325.
    [Google Scholar]
  14. Myers KP, Setterquist SF, Capuano AW, Gray GC, 2007. Infection due to 3 avian influenza subtypes in United States veterinarians. Clin Infect Dis 45: 49.
    [Google Scholar]
  15. Puzelli S, Di Trani L, Fabiani C, Campitelli L, De Marco MA, Capua I, Aguilera JF, Zambon M, Donatelli I, 2005. Serological analysis of serum samples from humans exposed to avian H7 influenza viruses in Italy between 1999 and 2003. J Infect Dis 192: 13181322.
    [Google Scholar]
  16. Gray GC, McCarthy T, Capuano AW, Setterquist SF, Alavanja MC, Lynch CF, 2008. Evidence for avian influenza A infections among Iowa’s agricultural workers. Influenza Other Respir Viruses 2: 6169.
    [Google Scholar]
  17. Schmidt WP, Cairncross S, Barreto ML, Clasen T, Genser B, 2009. Recent diarrhoeal illness and risk of lower respiratory infections in children under the age of 5 years. Int J Epidemiol 38: 766772.
    [Google Scholar]
  18. Ashraf S, Huque MH, Kenah E, Agboatwalla M, Luby SP, 2013. Effect of recent diarrhoeal episodes on risk of pneumonia in children under the age of 5 years in Karachi, Pakistan. Int J Epidemiol 42: 194200.
    [Google Scholar]
  19. Coles CL, Fraser D, Givon-Lavi N, Greenberg D, Gorodischer R, Bar-Ziv J, Dagan R, 2005. Nutritional status and diarrheal illness as independent risk factors for alveolar pneumonia. Am J Epidemiol 162: 9991007.
    [Google Scholar]
  20. Randolph TF, Schelling E, Grace D, Nicholson CF, Leroy JL, Cole DC, Demment MW, Omore A, Zinsstag J, Ruel M, 2007. Invited review: role of livestock in human nutrition and health for poverty reduction in developing countries. J Anim Sci 85: 27882800.
    [Google Scholar]
  21. Dewey KG, Mayers DR, 2011. Early child growth: how do nutrition and infection interact? Matern Child Nutr 7 (Suppl 3): 129142.
    [Google Scholar]
  22. Ruel MT, Arimond M, 2002. Spot-check observational method for assessing hygiene practices: review of experience and implications for programmes J Health Popul Nutr 20: 6576.
    [Google Scholar]
  23. Schreiner M, 2015. Microfinance Risk Management. Uganda: Microfinance Risk Management, LLC. Available at: https://www.povertyindex.org/country/uganda. Accessed October 11, 2018.
    [Google Scholar]
  24. Zou G, 2004. A modified Poisson regression approach to prospective studies with binary data. Am J Epidemiol 159: 702706.
    [Google Scholar]
  25. Yelland LN, Salter AB, Ryan P, 2011. Performance of the modified poisson regression approach for estimating relative risks from clustered prospective data. Am J Epidemiol 174: 984992.
    [Google Scholar]
  26. Pocock SJ, Assmann SE, Enos LE, Kasten LE, 2002. Subgroup Analysis, covariate adjustment and baseline comparisons in clinical trial reporting: current practiceand problems. Stat Med 21: 29172930.
    [Google Scholar]
  27. von Elm E, Altman DG, Egger M, Pocock SJ, Gøtzsche PC, Vandenbroucke JP, 2014. The strengthening the reporting of observational studies in epidemiology (STROBE) statement: guidelines for reporting observational studies. Int J Surg 12: 14951499.
    [Google Scholar]
  28. Katz J, Carey VJ, Zeger SL, Sommer A, 1993. Estimation of design effects and diarrhea clustering within households and villages. Am J Epidemiol 138: 9941006.
    [Google Scholar]
  29. Grados O, Bravo N, Black RE, Butzler JP, 1988. Paediatric Campylobacter diarrhoea from household exposure to live chickens in Lima, Peru. Bull World Health Organ 66: 369374.
    [Google Scholar]
  30. Vasco K, Graham JP, Trueba G, 2016. Detection of zoonotic enteropathogens in children and domestic animals in a semi-rural community in Ecuador. Appl Environ Microbiol 82: 42184224.
    [Google Scholar]
  31. Ercumen A et al., 2017. Animal feces contribute to domestic fecal contamination: evidence from E. Coli measured in water, hands, food, flies, and soil in Bangladesh. Environ Sci Technol 51: 87258734.
    [Google Scholar]
  32. Ngure FM et al., 2013. Formative research on hygiene behaviors and geophagy among infants and young children and implications of exposure to fecal bacteria. Am J Trop Med Hyg 89: 709716.
    [Google Scholar]
  33. Marquis GS, Ventura G, Gilman RH, Porras E, Miranda E, Carbajal L, Pentafiel M, 1990. Fecal contamination of shanty town toddlers in households with non-corralled poultry, Lima, Peru. Am J Public Health 80: 146149.
    [Google Scholar]
  34. Oberhelman RA, Gilman RH, Sheen P, Cordova J, Zimic M, Cabrera L, Meza R, Perez J, 2006. An intervention-control study of corralling of free-ranging chickens to control Campylobacter infections among children in a Peruvian periurban shantytown. Am J Trop Med Hyg 74: 10541059.
    [Google Scholar]
  35. Headey D, Hirvonen K 2016. Is exposure to poultry harmful to child nutrition? An observational analysis for rural Ethiopia. PLoS One 11: e0160590.
    [Google Scholar]
  36. Humphrey JH et al., 2019. Independent and combined effects of improved water, sanitation, and hygiene, and improved complementary feeding, on child stunting and anaemia in rural Zimbabwe: a cluster-randomised trial. Lancet Glob Health 7: e132e147.
    [Google Scholar]
  37. Schmidt W-P, Boisson S, Routray P, Bell M, Cameron M, Torondel B, Clasen T, 2016. Exposure to cows is not associated with diarrhoea or impaired child growth in rural Odisha, India: a cohort study. Epidemiol Infect 144: 5363.
    [Google Scholar]
  38. Thiem VD, Schmidt W-P, Suzuki M, Tho LH, Yanai H, Ariyoshi K, Anh DD, Yoshida L-M, 2012. Animal Livestock and the risk of hospitalized diarrhoea in children under 5 years in Vietnam. Trop Med Int Health 17: 613621.
    [Google Scholar]
  39. Mayne DJ, Ressler K-A, Smith D, Hockey G, Botham SJ, Ferson MJ, 2011. A community outbreak of cryptosporidiosis in sydney associated with a public swimming facility: a case-control study. Interdiscip Perspect Infect Dis 2011: 341065.
    [Google Scholar]
  40. World Health Organization, 2018. Influenza (Avian and Other Zoonotic). Available at: https://www.who.int/news-room/fact-sheets/detail/influenza-(avian-and-other-zoonotic). Accessed December 29, 2019.
    [Google Scholar]
  41. Chen Y et al., 2013. Human infections with the emerging avian influenza A H7N9 virus from wet market poultry: clinical analysis and characterisation of viral genome. Lancet 381: 19161925.
    [Google Scholar]
  42. Dowell SF, 2001. Seasonal variation in host susceptibility and cycles of certain infectious diseases. Emerg Infect Dis 7: 369374.
    [Google Scholar]
  43. Shek LP-C, Lee B-W, 2003. Epidemiology and seasonality of respiratory tract virus infections in the tropics. Paediatric Respir Rev 4: 105111.
    [Google Scholar]
  44. Chew FT, Doraisingham S, Ling AE, Kumarasinghe G, Lee BW, 1998. Seasonal trends of viral respiratory tract infections in the tropics. Epidemiol Infect 121: 121128.
    [Google Scholar]
  45. de Arruda NE et al., 1991. Acute respiratory viral infections in ambulatory children of urban northeast Brazil. J Infect Dis 164: 252258.
    [Google Scholar]
  46. Dosseh A, Ndiaye K, Spiegel A, Sagna M, Mathiot C, 2000. Epidemiological and virological influenza survey in Dakar, Senegal: 1996–1998. Am J Trop Med Hyg 62: 639643.
    [Google Scholar]
  47. Chao DL, Roose A, Roh M, Kotloff KL, Proctor JL, 2019. The seasonality of diarrheal pathogens: a retrospective study of seven sites over three years. Plos Negl Trop Dis 13: e0007211.
    [Google Scholar]
  48. Mertens A, Balakrishnan K, Ramaswamy P, Rajkumar P, Ramaprabha P, Durairaj N, Hubbard AE, Khush R, Colford JM, Arnold Benjamin F, 2019. Associations between high temperature, heavy rainfall, and diarrhea among young children in rural Tamil Nadu, India: a prospective cohort study. Environ Health Perspect 127: 047004.
    [Google Scholar]
  49. Prottas C, Dioguardi A, Aguti S, 2018. Empowering Rural Communities to Sustain Clean Water and Improve Hygiene through Self-Help Groups. Transformation towards Sustainable and Resilient WASH Services: Proceedings of the 41st WEDC International Conference, July 9–13, 2018, Nakuru, Kenya.
    [Google Scholar]
  50. Zafar SN, Luby SP, Mendoza C, 2010. Recall errors in a weekly survey of diarrhoea in Guatemala: determining the optimal length of recall. Epidemiol Infect 138: 264269.
    [Google Scholar]
  51. Arnold BF, Galiani S, Ram PK, Hubbard AE, Briceño B, Gertler PJ, Colford JM, 2013. Optimal recall period for caregiver-reported illness in risk factor and intervention studies: a multicountry study. Am J Epidemiol 177: 361370.
    [Google Scholar]
  52. Rothman KJ, Greenland S, Lash TL, 2008. Modern Epidemiology, 3rd edition. Philadelphia, PA: Lippincott Williams & Wilkins.
    [Google Scholar]
  53. Levine MM, Robins-Browne RM, 2012. Factors that explain excretion of enteric pathogens by persons without diarrhea. Clin Infect Dis 55 (Suppl 4): S303S311.
    [Google Scholar]
  54. Taniuchi M, Sobuz SU, Begum S, Platts-Mills JA, Liu J, Yang Z, Wang X-Q, Petri WA, Haque R, Houpt ER, 2013. Etiology of diarrhea in Bangladeshi infants in the first year of life analyzed using molecular methods. J Infect Dis 208: 17941802.
    [Google Scholar]
  55. Platts-Mills JA et al., 2014. Association between stool enteropathogen quantity and disease in Tanzanian children using TaqMan array cards: a nested case-control study. Am J Trop Med Hyg 90: 133138.
    [Google Scholar]
  56. Humphrey JH, 2009. Child undernutrition, tropical enteropathy, toilets, and handwashing. Lancet 374: 10321035.
    [Google Scholar]
  57. Keusch GT et al., 2013. Implications of acquired environmental enteric dysfunction for growth and stunting in infants and children living in low- and middle-income countries. Food Nutr Bull 34: 357364.
    [Google Scholar]
  58. George CM et al., Fecal markers of environmental enteropathy are associated with animal exposure and caregiver hygiene in Bangladesh. Am J Trop Med Hyg 2015 93: 269275.
    [Google Scholar]
  59. Ercumen A et al., 2018. Do sanitation improvements reduce fecal contamination of water, hands, food, soil, and flies? Evidence from a cluster-randomized controlled trial in rural Bangladesh. Environ Sci Technol 52: 1208912097.
    [Google Scholar]
  60. Prendergast AJ et al., 2019. Putting the “A” into WaSH: a call for integrated management of water, animals, sanitation, and hygiene. Lancet Planet Health 3: e336e337.
    [Google Scholar]
http://instance.metastore.ingenta.com/content/journals/10.4269/ajtmh.19-0012
Loading
/content/journals/10.4269/ajtmh.19-0012
Loading

Data & Media loading...

  • Received : 07 Jan 2019
  • Accepted : 10 Dec 2019
  • Published online : 20 Jan 2020
This is a required field
Please enter a valid email address
Approval was a Success
Invalid data
An Error Occurred
Approval was partially successful, following selected items could not be processed due to error